A VISIT TO BIMINI’S MARINE ENVIRONMENT (2)


Seahorse (Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign)

A VISIT TO BIMINI’S MARINE ENVIRONMENT (2)

In this second part of the look at Bimini’s Marine Protected Area Campaign and the photographs that illustrate the vital importance of the mangroves, reefs, sea grass and pristine sea to marine life, it’s time to look at some of the the smaller sea creatures in their underwater habitat. Many of these are vulnerable to changes in their environment; some are already rare. 

SPINY LOBSTER

Spiny Lobster Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign copy 3 Spiny Lobster Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

SEA HORSES

Sea Horse Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Seahorse Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Seahorses Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

SEA HARE

For more information on this creature, click HERE

164441_607403889277224_192821659_nSea Hare squirting ink Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

BATFISH

To learn more about Batfish, click HERE

Batfish Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

QUEEN CONCHQueen Conch Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

SILVERSIDES

At first glance you may wonder why these little fish are worth including. The answer lies in the food chain. The clean environment in which these bait fish thrive provides food for larger species and so on up the chain… If silversides ceased to exist, a vital source of marine nutrition would be lost.

Silversides Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign copySilversides Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

CREDITS: Bimini’s Marine Protected Area Campaign with many thanks for use permission of their material including images © Grant Jonson / 60 Pound Bullet Photography, and to all other photographers featured. Overall, cheers to Bimini, wildlife and conservation…

“CLINGING TO THE WRECKAGE”: BAHAMAS CLINGING CRABS


Clinging crab in smoke stack on Theo's Wreck ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

“CLINGING TO THE WRECKAGE”: BAHAMAS CLINGING CRABS

The Clinging Crab Mithrax spinosissimus answers to a number of names: West Indian spider crab, channel clinging crab, reef or spiny spider crab, or coral crab. It is found throughout the waters of South Florida and the Caribbean. Clinging Crab ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

These are crabs of the reef, or indeed of the wrecks that may be found around reefs. Some of the crabs in this post have chosen wrecks as their home – in the header image the crab is living inside the smoke stack of ‘Theo’s Wreck’, Grand Bahama.Clinging Crab ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

The clinging crab is believed to be omniverous, its main diet being algae and carrion. They can grow to 2 kg, and it is the largest species of reef crab found in the Caribbean.Clinging Crab © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

The clinging crab / West Indian spider crab is (apparently) not commercially harvested for its meat. However, it is said to be delicious. Any views on this welcome in the comments section! If you want to know more about how to prepare (“a real challenge”) and cook a spider crab, check out this LINK

Clinging Crab ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Life on the reef can be dangerous. This crab has lost some legs: its clinging powers are somewhat curtailed…Clinging Crab (legs missing) ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

This guy has some missing parts, but seems quite laid back about it…Clinging Crab, Bahamas (Melinda Riger, G B Scuba)

Credits: Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba (all photos); Tom Hunt, eco-chef (recipe)

A VISIT TO BIMINI’S MARINE ENVIRONMENT (1)


Loggerhead Hatchling Bimini BMPAC

Loggerhead Hatchling (Bimini’s Marine Protected Area Campaign)

A VISIT TO BIMINI’S MARINE ENVIRONMENT (1)

Abaco is fortunate already to have special conservation areas, both on land (e.g. the huge National Park) and at sea (e.g. Fowl Cay Marine Preserve). Other preserves are in active stages of development. Elsewhere in the Bahamas, where the natural life is equally wonderful, battles are being fought to protect pristine habitat from the encroachments of modern life such as unsuitable development (or development in unsuitable locations). For this first look at Bimini, I am most grateful to Bimini’s Marine Protected Area Campaign  for permission to use some of their wonderful photographic archive that illustrates the vital importance of the mangroves, reefs, sea grass and pristine sea to marine life large and small. It’s worth checking out the background and surrounding context of these images to see the sort of habitat the creatures depicted prefer. This post features some of the larger species.

HAMMERHEAD SHARKS

Hammerhead Shark, Bimini (Grant Johnson/ 60 Pound Bullet)Hammerhead Sharks 3 Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Hammerhead Shark 2 Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Hammerhead Shark 4 Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

NURSE SHARK NURSERY IN THE MANGROVES

Nurse Sharks Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Nurse Shark BMPAC

BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS

Dolphin 2 Bimini's Marine Protected Area CampaignDolphin Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

RAYS

A pregnant female southern stingray, seen from belowSouthern Stingray (pregnant) Bimini's Marine Protected Area CampaignRay, Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Ray, Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

HAWKSBILL TURTLES

Turtle in Mangroves Bimini's Marine Protected Area CampaignHawkshead Turtle 2 Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

CREDITS: Bimini’s Marine Protected Area Campaign with many thanks for use permission of their material including images © Grant Jonson / 60 Pound Bullet Photography, and to all other photographers featured. Overall, cheers to Bimini, wildlife and conservation…

MARK CATESBY: PIONEERING NATURALIST OF EARLY c18


Mark Catesby Bahama Finch (Western Spindalis, Spindalis Zena)

Mark Catesby: Bahama Finch (Western Spindalis, Spindalis zena)

MARK CATESBY: PIONEERING NATURALIST OF EARLY c18

There’s been (yet) another abrupt side-swerve away from a topic I’d intended to post about, resulting from a newspaper article I read over the weekend. This concerns what was gushingly described as “the ultimate coffee table book”, a facsimile of Mark Catesby’s renowned work, The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands.

Catesby (1682 – 1749) was a pioneering English naturalist and artist who published his magnum opus based on a number of expeditions he undertook from 1712 onwards. His was the first ever published account of the flora and fauna of North America, and the 2 volumes (with a supplement) included some 220 colour plates of the creatures and plants of land and sea that he had come across.
Mark Catesby - Angelfish

Mark Catesby – Angelfish

Mark Catesby - Queen Triggerfish

Mark Catesby – Queen Triggerfish

Catesby’s growing fame as a botanist led to his undertaking expeditions on behalf of the Royal Society to collect plants and seeds in Carolina. He widened his researches both in America and to the West Indies, collecting plants and fauna as he went and sending them back to England. Among other discoveries, he was one of the very first people to observe and record the occurrence of bird migration as a twice-yearly phenomenon.

Red-legged Thrush in Gumbo Limbo Tree (HM QE2)

Red-legged Thrush in Gumbo Limbo Tree

Eventually, in 1726 Catesby also returned to base and set about writing up his findings and painting what he had seen. He learnt how to etch printing plates, and gradually the illustrations became more sophisticated, starting without backgrounds then including plants with the animals and birds. The whole project took him some 20 years; quite soon after completing it, he died.

Flamingo Head + Gorgonian Coral (HM QE2)

Flamingo Head & Gorgonian Coral

 
CATESBY: THE VIDEO INTRO
WHERE IS THE ORIGINAL WORK NOW?
 
Catesby’s original drawings were bought by King George III for £120 (a very considerable sum in 1768 – my quick attempts to discover how much suggest ± £200,000) and have remained in the Royal Family ever since. This treasure is kept in the Royal Library of Windsor Castle, the property of HM QE2, though it is occasionally exhibited elsewhere. Later facsimiles of the original were produced, of which some 50 survive today.
Mark Catesby - 'Bahama Titmous' (Bananaquit)

Mark Catesby – ‘Bahama Titmous’ (Bananaquit)

SO WHAT’S ALL THE EXCITEMENT ABOUT NOW? 
Addison Publications has printed a very limited edition facsimile of 60 in 4 lavish volumes, printed one at a time, “to mark the 300th anniversary of Catesby’s arrival in the New World”.
catesbys_natural_history_9
The cost per set? A stonking £39,500 ($61,330). Now this may sound a great deal of money for a modern copy of an old book and it undoubtedly is. But here’s the Christie’s Auction catalogue entry for one of the early facsimiles. Mmmmmm.
CATESBY AUCTION JPG
Mark Catesby - plate 139 Hawksbill Turtle

Mark Catesby – Hawksbill Turtle

“Illuminating natural history is so particularly essential to the perfect understanding of it”                 (Mark Catesby)
Mark Catesby (Black-faced Grassquit)

Mark Catesby (Black-faced Grassquit)

Delphi afficionados, especially any who have stayed in Room 1, may recognise 3 of the illustrative images I have chosen – the Spindalis, the Bananaquit and the Grassquit. No, I don’t mean the actual species, I mean that Catesby prints of them are tastefully hung on the walls. I can never decide which of the 3 is my favourite…

RELATED POSTS

CHARLES CORY & ABACO 1891

THE PIONEERS (Wilson, Audubon, et al)  

MR SWAINSON (on his 224th Birthday)

51C+Zz+7CSL._SX363_BO1,204,203,200_

STOP PRESS Thanks to Woody Bracey for his interesting comment. More information about the Catesby Commemorative Trust and the book The Curious Mister Catesby can be found HERE. A slightly curious promo video was also released.

For anyone tempted to look further into the importance of this ground-breaking naturalist, the CCT produced a 50 minute film that is well worth watching if you can spare the time.

Credits:  Sunday Times (article), HM QE2, National Geographic, Catesby Commemorative Trust, sundry open source info-&-pic-mines inc. Wiki, Addison Publs, & my Bank Manager for declining to loan me the purchase price of the new facsimile…

“THE BUTTERBUN” (LONGSNOUT BUTTERFLYFISH): BAHAMAS REEF FISH (26)


Longnose : Longsnout Buttefly Fish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

“THE BUTTERBUN” (LONGSNOUT BUTTERFLYFISH)

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (26)

The Atlantic/ Caribbean Longsnout Butterflyfish Prognathodes aculeatus is sometimes known locally as the Longnose (not to be confused with the bright yellow Indo-Pacific Longnose Butterflyfish). The affectionate name for it is ‘Butterbun’. A more scientific name is ‘Poey’s Butterflyfish’, named for the man who first identified the species in 1841.

Mr Felipe Poey

Longnose : Longsnout Butterflyfish  © Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy
These little fish, 2 0r 3 inches long, are commonly found on reefs from Florida down to Venezuela. Unlike most butterflyfishes, they prefer deeper water and have been found at 200 ft; and they tend to be solitary rather than gregarious.
Longnose: Longsnout Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copyLongsnout Butterflyfish (www.whatsthatfish.com)
BUTTERBUN. THAT SUGGESTS THEY ARE PLUMP?

Longsnout Butterflyfish (π Florent's Reef Guide)NOPE!Longsnout Butterflyfish Prognathodes aculeatus (Wiki)

RELATED LINKS

BUTTERFLYFISHES (RH guide to reef, banded, four-eyed & spotfin)

REEF FISH INDEX gateway to loads of colourful finny species

WHAT’S THAT FISH? A handy resource

FLORENT’S GUIDE A ditto

Longnose : Longsnout Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @GB Scuba copy

Credits: Melinda Riger for her brilliant underwater images (as marked); plus What’s That Fish?, Florent’s Guide and good old Wiki…

FORAYS WITH MORAYS (3): LET’S GO GREEN…


Green Moray Eel with Soldierfish (Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba)

FORAYS WITH MORAYS (3): LET’S GO GREEN…

A short while back I posted about SPOTTED MORAYS, which people seem to enjoy. It generated requests for more forays, specifically with green morays. I gotcha – here they are, as promised… All the eels shown below, familiar to the divers who regularly encounter them and given names such as “Judy’ and “Wasabi” (my favourite), were photographed by Scuba expert Melinda Riger, whose skills with a camera are well-known. Let’s go Green…

Like all moray species, Greens like to lurk in convenient hiding places to watch the underwater world – and possible prey – go by. Here are some typical ‘lurking’ shots.Moray Eel, Green, with lunch (eel) emerging from gill ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba Green Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

Green Moray Eel (Judy) ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba Moray Eel, Green (Wasabi) ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba Green Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Green morays also have the unusual breathing apparatus that resemble nasal plugsGreen Moray Eel Melinda Riger @ G B ScubaGreen Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

Those who recall the spotted moray post and their singular dentition arrangements that included a long sharp tooth sticking down from the upper jaw will no doubt be thinking, “are we going be shown any dental close-ups?” But of course… why would I not?

Note the cluster of teeth in the upper jaw, differing from the spotted morayMoray Eel (Yellow) Judy ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Grrrrrrrrrrrrrrr…….Moray Eel, green ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

All photos: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) (5): THE FROGFISH


Frogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) (5): THE FROGFISH

This ‘WTF?’ series started with a relatively conventional species, the REMORA. It has been getting progressively more bizarre. We moved onto an omnium gatherum of WEIRDO FISHES, then the remarkable LETTUCE SEA SLUG, and most recently the BATFISH. Time to ramp up the stakes: with many thanks to scuba expert Adam Rees for use permission for his terrific photos, I present… the FROGFISH.

Frogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

The frogfish is a kind of anglerfish found in almost all tropical and subtropical oceans and seas. There are about 50 different species worldwide, covering an astonishing range of strange appearances. They generally live on the sea floor around coral or rock reefs. In size they vary from tiny to about 15 inches long – although ‘long’ is a flexible concept because they are to an extent shape-changers in height and width.Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works)

FROGFISH SUPERPOWERS YOU MAY WISH TO HAVE

  • INVISIBILITY CLOAK . Frogfish are masters of disguise and camouflage. This enables them to catch their prey with minimal effort and also to avoid predators. Their camouflage methods – broadly known as ‘aggressive mimicry’ – include
    • Ability to change colour for days or even weeks to mimic their surroundings
    • Getting covered in algae and other organic matter that matches their habitat or
    • Looking inherently like a plump rock or in some cases, plant

Fear for the life of the spider crabFrogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

  • IRRESISTIBLE ATTRACTION (just like that nice Mr Grey)
    • A sort of frontal dorsal fin called an illicium to which is attached a
    • Lure called an esca which may mimic a worm, shrimp or small fish etc and which is
    • Retractable in many species and
    • Regenerates if it gets mislaid

The ‘dollop of cream’ thing is the esca. Note the characteristic large mouthFrogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

Spot the escaFrogfish (wiki)

  • BUOYANCY CONTROL & SHAPE-SHIFTING
    • Most frogfish have a ‘gas bladder’ to control their buoyancy.
    • Some species can change shape or even inflate themselves by sucking in quantities of water in a so-called defensive ‘threat display’.

frogfish-black

Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works) Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works)

HOW DO FROGFISH REPRODUCE? 

Although not conventionally attractive creatures, frogfish clearly manage to reproduce. Little is known about the techniques in the wild, but one is probably ‘with care’, especially for a male frogfish who may not survive for long if he hangs around after fertilisation has taken place. It has been noted that females tend to select far smaller males to fertilise their huge numbers of eggs, perhaps for that very reason.

Frogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

FROGFISH FEEDING SKILLS – GOOD OR BAD?

When deploying the lure, potential prey that comes too close to that wide mouth stands no chance. A frogfish will strike in a fraction of a second. Frogfishes have voracious appetites for crustaceans, other fish, and even each other. I can do no better than borrow this vivid description of a feeding frogfish:

“When potential prey is first spotted, the frogfish follows it with its eyes. Then, when it approaches within roughly seven body-lengths, the frogfish begins to move its illicium in such a way that the esca mimics the motions of the animal it resembles. As the prey approaches, the frogfish slowly moves to prepare for its attack; sometimes this involves approaching the prey or “stalking” while sometimes it is simply adjusting its mouth angle. The catch itself is made by the sudden opening of the jaws, which enlarges the volume of the mouth cavity up to twelve-fold, pulling the prey into the mouth along with water. The attack can be as fast as 6 milliseconds. The water flows out through the gills, while the prey is swallowed and the oesophagus closed with a special muscle to keep the victim from escaping. In addition to expanding their mouths, frogfish can also expand their stomachs to swallow animals up to twice their size.

images

HOW DO FROGFISHES GET AROUND? SWIM? WALK? CRAWL?

Frogfishes do not in fact move around a great deal. Using their camo advantages, they prefer to lie on the sea floor and wait for prey to come to them. As mentioned in the quote above, they may slowly approach prey using their pectoral and pelvic fins to “walk” along the sea bottom. They can swim using their tail fin (or in some species by simple ‘jet propulsion’ by forcing water out of their gills) but rarely do so – they don’t feed on the move, and they are adapted to the sea floor environment where they food is readily available. However their “walking” ability is limited to short distances.

frogfish-anglerfisch

DO FROGFISH HAVE OTHER COLOUR SCHEMES?

Indeed they do. In stark contrast to the camo species, some frogfishes are highlighter bright. Here are two of my favourite photos by Adam that show this clearly. I’ve no idea if these are a male and female. I suspect they are different species. I think the brown one is a striated frogfish and the other is… a yellow frogfish. Some people keep these creatures in  aquaria, but apparently it is impossible to sex them, and they have to be kept on their own for everyone’s peace of mind…

Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works) Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works)

FROGFISH INFOGRAPHICS

frogfishFrogfish Infographic 'Monsters of the Deep'

FROGFISH VIDEOS

These two videos, from Lester Knutsen and Daan Van Wijk respectively, show some of the characteristics I have written about above. Both are short and both are fascinating.

To read more about frogfishes and for some fabulous photos I highly recommend the website FROGFISH.CH You can reach the main page(s) but the link seem to be broken so I have not been able to contact Teresa Zubi, whose site it is. She clearly has a sense of humour and uses a neat pair of gifs which I hope she won’t mind my using…

Credits: All main photos, Adam Rees  of Scuba Works with many thanks; wiki for ‘spot the esca’, red quote & basic info; videos Lester Knutsen & Daan Van Wijk; Teresa Zubi for website & gifs; infographics, authors u/k

Frogfish Tee Shirt