BAHAMAS REEF CORAL: A COLOURFUL GALLERY


Orange Cup Coral ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

BAHAMAS REEF CORAL:  A COLOURFUL GALLERY

The reefs of the northern Bahamas, as elsewhere in the world, are affected by two significant factors: climate change and pollution. Stepping carefully over the sharp pointy rocks of controversy, I’ve avoided the term ‘global warming’ and any associated implication that humans (oh, and methane from cows) are largely to blame for the first factor; but on any view, ocean pollution is the responsibility of mankind (and not even the cows). 

That said, an exploration of the reefs of Abaco or Grand Bahama will reveal not just the astounding variety of mobile marine life but also the plentiful and colourful static marine life – for example the beautiful and Christmassy orange cup coral in the header image. Here are some more corals from the reefs, with a mix of sponges added in. 

Giant Star Coral & Rope Sponge ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copyCorals ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy 2Corals ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copySea Fans & other corals ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba copy

This rather intriguing photo shows a hermit crab’s conch home that presumably the occupant grew out of and left behind in the delicate coral branches as it went search of a more spacious shell dwelling.Coral & conch ex crab home 1380179_645156602172399_300806994_n copy

Credits: All these wonderful photos are by Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba; tendentious reef health observations are mine own…

HAWKSBILL TURTLES: WONDERFUL… & CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


Hawksbill Turtle ©Virginia Cooper @ G B Scuba

HAWKSBILL TURTLES: WONDERFUL… & CRITICALLY ENDANGERED

Hawksbill Turtle ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy 3

Hawksbill turtles are found throughout the tropical waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. They avoid deep waters, preferring coastlines where sponges are abundant and sandy nesting sites are within reach. They are normally found near reefs rich in the sponges they like to feed on. Hawksbills are omnivorous and will also eat molluscs, marine algae, crustaceans, sea urchins, fish, and jellyfish. 

Hawksbill Turtle Range (Nat Geo)map-hawksbill-turtle-160-cb1447865323

Turtle with Gray Angelfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

WHY ARE HAWKSBILLS CRITICALLY ENDANGERED?

  1. Despite the protection of their shells, turtles are predated on by large fish, sharks, octopuses, and (unlawfully) humans.
  2. Hawksbills are slow breeders, mating only every 2 or 3 years, which is the first drawback to species survival.
  3. Having laid the resulting eggs on a beach, the female returns to the sea. The eggs hatch after a couple of months. Unless, of course, some creature – and that includes humans – has got to them first…
  4. Hatchlings are hugely vulnerable as they make their way from the nest site to the sea. However fast they scurry along, crabs and in particular flocks of gulls are faster. Also, they may have to negotiate impossible obstacles washed up onto the beach  (see below). The attrition rate of  tiny turtles at this stage is very considerable.

Hawksbill Turtle ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

SO, HUMANS ARE BASICALLY IN THE CLEAR, RIGHT?

Humans can take most of the credit for the turtles plight leading to their IUCN ‘critically endangered’ listing, in these mostly illegal ways:

  • Killing adult turtles for food or…
  • …for their beautiful shells
  • Digging up turtle nesting sites to take the eggs as food
  • Catching turtles in fishing nets as unintended but often inevitable BYCATCH
  • Providing a rich stew of plastic, styrofoam & other dietary or physical hazards in the ocean
  • Degrading or destroying the nesting sites, & indeed the reefs on which turtles depend

A hatchling tries to clamber over beach rubbish to get to the seaTurtle traps - Melissa Maura copy

A straw is extracted from a turtle’s nostril (small pics on purpose – I spared you the long video)Turtle & straw 1 (Nathan Robinson : Chris Figgener) Turtle & straw 2 (Nathan Robinson : Chris Figgener) Turtle & straw 3 (Nathan Robinson : Chris Figgener)

This poor creature was found just in timeHawkbill Turtle Plastic breathecostarica copy

Assorted plastic effects (the turtle trapped in the beach chair was off Man-o-War Cay) Sea Turtle tied up in balloon string (Blair Witherington : NOAA) copyphoto copy 7 This turtle, which was found floating in North Man-O-War Channel, died as a direct result of being entangled in human trash(in this case, a lawn chair) copy IMG_1346 copy

PLEASE CAN WE GO BACK TO HAPPY PICTURES?

Healthy hawksbills happily living the northern Bahamas reef lifeHawksbill Turtle (m) (Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba) Hawksbill Turtle (flipper damage) ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

RELATED POSTS

TURTLEY AMAZING

SEA TURTLE THREATS

BABY TURTLES WITH PHIL LANOUE

Hawksbill Turtle & photo ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Credits: Melinda Riger & Virginia Cooper of Grand Bahama Scuba for the main photos; Melissa Maura, Nathan Robinson, Friends of the Environment and other FB sharers for the small images; National Geographic for range chart and information

‘SLOW BLUES IN SEA’: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (10)


BLUES IN C tab

‘SLOW BLUES IN SEA’: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (10)

Albert King, Lead Belly and Mike Bloomfield are prime examples of foremost bluesmen guitar-slingers who, in their own distinctive styles, favoured the key of… I’m sorry, what did you say? Oh yes, quite right. My misunderstanding. Apologies, I’ll take it from the top…

Deep blue sea. Deep blue fish. *Deep breath*. All better now. The fish below may all readily be found nosing around the coral reefs of the Bahamas in a leisurely manner. Mostly, they are feeding. Fowl Cay Marine Preserve, Abaco, is a great place for watching them. No need to have all the gear – a simple snorkel, mask and flippers, and an ability to float a bit, would be sufficient.

BLUE CHROMIS Chromis cyanea

Blue Chromis, Fowl Cay, Abaco fish12 These dazzling little blue fish will be one of the first you’ll meet (along with the omnipresent yellow and black striped sergeant majors, so friendly they will come right up to your mask). You can’t miss them. Though very small, their electric blue colouring cuts through the water even on the dullest of days up-top. They can reach 5 inches in length, but most that you see will be tiddlers. They are frequently seen in the company of larger fish.Blue Chromis ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Blue Chromis ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

BLUE PARROTFISH Scarus coeruleusBlue Parrot Fish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Parrotfish play a vital part in the ecology and health of the coral reef. They graze on algae, cleaning the coral and grinding the surface with their teeth. They take the nutrients and excrete the rest as… sand. This helps to form your beach! To find out more about their uses and habits, click PARROTFISH. You’ll find a great deal of interesting info about the species, conveniently compressed into factual bullet points. Blue parrotfish 2Blue Parrotfish

BLUE TANG Acanthurus coeruleus

The blue tang is a type of surgeonfish, all-blue except for a yellow spot near the tail. The blueness can vary considerably, from very pale to dark. They tend to swim elegantly around in large groups.Blue Tang ©Melinda Riga @ G B Scuba Blue Tang ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Here are some images of schools of blue tang that I took with a cheapo underwater camera at Fowl Cay. They are a lovely sight as they drift slowly past alongside the reef. The top one also has a sergeant major (see above).fishx fishu4 Blue Tang, Abaco fish28 fish20

CREOLE WRASSE Clepticus parraeCreole Wrasse ©Melinda Riger @GBS

This wrasse can grow up to a foot long, and may be found at considerable depths on deep-water reefs – 300 feet or more. They are active by day, and hide in rock clefts at night. This species is sociable, moving around in shoals. They develop yellow markings with age. Creole Wrasse School ©Melinda Riger @GBS

QUEEN TRIGGERFISH Balistes vetula

There are several species of triggerfish. The queen is capable of changing colour to match its surroundings, or (it is said) if subjected to stress. I think we have all been there. It is an aggressive and territorial fish, and its favourite prey is the sea urchin, a testament to its courage…Queen Triggerfish

QUEEN ANGELFISH (JUVENILE)

I have featured this species before HERE, and strictly it as much yellow as blue. But the blue earns double points, surely, for its startling vividness. Anyway, I like the way it hangs casually upside down, and the bubbles in this photo.

Juvenile Queen Angel ©Melinda Riger GB Scuba

Credits: Good photos – Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba; Poor photos – RH

From time to time I end a post with something musical. Just for fun (toxic concept). So here is a real “Slow Blues in C” from the fantastic guitarist Stefan Grossman off  his eclectic ‘Yazoo Basin Boogie’ album. 22 quality tracks. Buy from Am*z*n – much cheaper than iT*nes.    

                                                  

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BEAUTIFUL DAMSELS: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (9)


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BEAUTIFUL DAMSELS: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (9)

YELLOWTAIL DAMSELFISHBICOLOR DAMSELFISHBicolor Damsel ©Melinda Riger @ G B ScubaCOCOA DAMSELFISHJuvenile Cocoa DamelfishTHREE-SPOT DAMSELFISH (JUV)

THREE-SPOT DAMSELFISHPhoto credits: Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba (except header image – Wiki-cheers)

‘UNDERWATER BUTTERFLIES’: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (8)


Spotfin Butterfly Fish

UNDERWATER BUTTERFLIES: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (8)

Butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) belong to a large worldwide family of small, colourful reef fishes. There are several sorts to be found in the Bahamas, of which 4 are shown below. These creatures resemble small angel fishes, and are invariably vividly coloured, strikingly patterned, or in many cases, both. Apart from that, the most interesting fact about them is that their species name  Chaetodontidae derives from a Greek compound noun meaning ‘hair tooth’. This unsettling description relates to the rows of tiny, fine filament-like teeth inside their protuberant mouths. If I ever get a photo of a butterflyfish showing its teeth while feeding or yawning, I will add it here…

FOUR-EYED BUTTERFLYFISHFour-eyed Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @GBS

REEF BUTTERFLYFISH

Reef Butterfly Fish ©Melinda Riger GB ScubaReef Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

SPOTFIN BUTTERFLYFISHSpotfin Butterfly Fish 2

BANDED BUTTERFLYFISH

Banded Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @GBSPhoto Credit: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba

MASTERS OF UNDERWATER CAMOUFLAGE: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (7)


BAHAMAS MASTERS OF UNDERWATER CAMOUFLAGE

SCORPIONFISHScorpionfish camouflaged against coral ©Melinda RigerScorpionfish Close-up ©Melinda Riger @GBS

PEACOCK FLOUNDER or PLATE FISH Bothus lunatusPeacock Flounder Peacock FlounderPeacock Flounder ©Melinda Riger @ GB ScubaPhotos: Melinda at Grand Bahama Scuba

This is my last post until next week, when apparently we can expect a snowy welcome. Hmmmm. Plenty of new material for kind followers – both of you..

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DELPHI DAWN

MANGROVE JELLYFISH: AN UPSIDE-DOWN UNDERWATER LIFE


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MANGROVE JELLYFISH: AN UPSIDE-DOWN UNDERWATER LIFE

220px-Status_iucn3.1_LC.svgThe Mangrove Jellyfish Cassiopea, also called the ‘upside-down jellyfish’ for reasons I needn’t dwell on, is the only member of its particular jellyfish family. These creatures prefer warm waters, and typically live upside-down on the sea-bottom, which no doubt makes catching prey very simple. They can be found individually, though more likely in large groups, with individuals displaying different shades and colours.

NEW An excellent video by Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba

The Mangrove Jellyfish has one of the milder stings of the numerous species, though human reactions to the sting will vary with the individual. A greater problem may come from swimming around or over a mass of these creatures. Their stinging cells are excreted in a transparent mucus which may invisibly cover the unwary swimmer. Apart from skin-irritation and a rash, the stings are apparently very itchy. My guess is that scratching can only make things worse (cf No-see-ums…). The first of the two videos below was taken recently by Sarah Bedard (to whom thanks) who “found a great tidal pool full of them at the end of Rock Point Road, Treasure Cay (Abaco)”. The second is short, but with some amazing footage of the Jellyfish in action.