‘BAHAMAS SHRIMPING’: BANDED CORAL SHRIMPS


Banded Coral Shrimp ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy 2

‘BAHAMAS SHRIMPING’: BANDED CORAL SHRIMPS

The Banded Coral Shrimp Stenopus hispidus is also known as the banded cleaner shrimp because it cleans other fish (see TAKEN TO THE CLEANERS); and ‘boxing shrimp’ because its stance and the large pincers on the third set of legs give the creature the appearance of a boxer ready to fight.

Banded Coral Shrimp Stenopus hispidus (Johan Fredriksson) a

These shrimps are widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical waters around the world where coral reefs are found. Their striking colour scheme makes them instantly recognisable.

Banded Coral Shrimp (Alexander Vasenin) a

BANDED CORAL SHRIMP ON STAR CORAL AT NIGHTBanded Coral Shrimp on Star Coral (night) - LASZLO ILYES

 BANDED CORAL SHRIMPS: 10 FACTS TO BANDY ABOUT

  • BCSs are decapods, having 5 matching pairs of legs / claws on each side
  • They can be found as deep as 200 metres in the ocean
  • They are also found in aquaria, but need careful management because…
  • They are generally aggressive to other BCSs & shrimps in the same tank and
  • They need room for their long legs and antennae to move freely around
  • However, rather sweetly, they are monogamous and do not eat their partners
  • Diet-wise they are omnivore carnivore scavengers
  • They are said to be amusing to watch as they rush round a tank after food
  • Not a good shrimp to breed: the larvae get stuck in the filtration or get eaten
  • In the sea, they act as ‘cleaner’ fish to larger fish species (see below)

Banded Coral Shrimp ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba Banded Coral Shrimp (+ Moray Tail) ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

In its capacity as a cleaner shrimp, the BCS solicits passing fish by slowly waving its long, white antennae. It then uses its three pairs of claws to remove parasites, fungi and damaged tissue from the fish. See the video example below.

A Banded Coral Shrimp (Stenopus hispidus).

BANDED CORAL SHRIMP CLEANING A PASSING YELLOW TANG

BANDED CORAL SHRIMPS IN A VASE SPONGE

Credits: Melinda Riger (Grand Bahama Scuba); Johan Fredriksson; Alexander Vasenin; Laszlo Ilyesr; R. Ling; LiveAquaria, Fishlore [nb not all pics are from the Bahamas, but the BCS is the same the world over…]

CARIBBEAN REEF SQUID: SUPERPOWERS & SEX LIVES REVEALED


Squid ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

CARIBBEAN REEF SQUID: SUPERPOWERS & SEX LIVES REVEALED

The Caribbean reef squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea is a small squid species of the Caribbean Sea and the Floridian coast. Its fins extend nearly the whole length of the body and undulate rapidly as it swims. Recently, it has been discovered that this squid is capable of brief flight out of the water.Squid ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

Reef squid tend to form small shoals in and around reefs. It is by far the most common squid species in its range, and can be sighted both close to the shore and quite near the surface (although that increases the risk of predation by seabirds).

A silvery squid swimming just below the surfaceCaribbean_reef_squid (Ed Brown)

Squid are voracious eaters, dragging their prey to their mouths and using a beak to cut it up. Their target species are small fish, molluscs and crustaceans. They have a ‘raspy tongue’ known as a radula which further breaks up the food for easy consumption.

Squid at Fowl Cay Marine Preserve, AbacoSquid Fowl Cay, Abaco Ellen Sokol, Kiskeedee Sailing Charters

SQUID SUPERPOWERS (SUPERCOOL)

  • Squid can change colour, texture and shape
  • This enviable power is used defensively as camouflage or to appear larger if threatened
  • It is also used in courtship rituals, something that humans would find most disconcerting
  • Colour patterns are also used for routine squid-to-squid communication AND GET THIS:
  • A squid can send a message to another on one side, and a different one to a squid on the other

Squid © Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba copy

SQUID SEX (1) “ROMANCING THE SQUID”

  • A male will gently stroke a female with his tentacles
  • The female will (most likely) flash an ‘alarm’ pattern
  • The male soothes her (don’t try this at home, guys) by blowing and jetting water at her
  • If he’s not getting on well, he’ll move off and repeat the routine until she sees his good points
  • However this on / off courtship can last for hours until at last he succeeds by…
  • …attaching a sticky packet of sperm onto the female’s body (romance is not dead)
  • She reaches for it and moves it to her “seminal receptacle”
  • Meanwhile he stays close, emitting a pulsing pattern, as well he might after all that
  • She then finds a safe place to lay her eggs. Job done.Two_Caribbean_Reef_Squid,(Clark Anderson)

SQUID SEX (2) IT ALL ENDS BADLY

  • As soon the female squid has laid her eggs, she dies at once
  • The male squid live a bit longer, and may have other packets to stick – then he dies too
  • It’s all horribly reminiscent of Romeo and Juliet. Without the balcony scene.Sepioteuthis sepioidea Caribbean Reef Squid (Nick Hobgood)

USES OF SQUID ON ABACO

Squid are prolific in the seas around Abaco, which is fortunate because they form a large part of the diet of some whale species, particularly the Blainville’s Beaked Whales that are commonly found in Abaco waters. I have a post on these magnificent creatures in preparation right now, and am in the process of sorting out suitable photos from a large number taken during a research expedition in March. 

More Squid at Fowl Cay Marine Preserve, AbacoSquid School, Fowl Cay, Abaco Ellen Sokol, Kiskeedee Sailing Charters

Credits: As ever (for underwater pics) Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba; also Ellen Sokol of Kiskeedee Sailing Charters, who kindly sent me the Fowl Cay photos; also Ed Brown, Clark Anderson and Nick Hobgood for ‘open-sourcing’ their great images

“CLINGING TO THE WRECKAGE”: BAHAMAS CLINGING CRABS


Clinging crab in smoke stack on Theo's Wreck ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

“CLINGING TO THE WRECKAGE”: BAHAMAS CLINGING CRABS

The Clinging Crab Mithrax spinosissimus answers to a number of names: West Indian spider crab, channel clinging crab, reef or spiny spider crab, or coral crab. It is found throughout the waters of South Florida and the Caribbean. Clinging Crab ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

These are crabs of the reef, or indeed of the wrecks that may be found around reefs. Some of the crabs in this post have chosen wrecks as their home – in the header image the crab is living inside the smoke stack of ‘Theo’s Wreck’, Grand Bahama.Clinging Crab ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

The clinging crab is believed to be omniverous, its main diet being algae and carrion. They can grow to 2 kg, and it is the largest species of reef crab found in the Caribbean.Clinging Crab © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

The clinging crab / West Indian spider crab is (apparently) not commercially harvested for its meat. However, it is said to be delicious. Any views on this welcome in the comments section! If you want to know more about how to prepare (“a real challenge”) and cook a spider crab, check out this LINK

Clinging Crab ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Life on the reef can be dangerous. This crab has lost some legs: its clinging powers are somewhat curtailed…Clinging Crab (legs missing) ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

This guy has some missing parts, but seems quite laid back about it…Clinging Crab, Bahamas (Melinda Riger, G B Scuba)

Credits: Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba (all photos); Tom Hunt, eco-chef (recipe)

“THE BUTTERBUN” (LONGSNOUT BUTTERFLYFISH): BAHAMAS REEF FISH (26)


Longnose : Longsnout Buttefly Fish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

“THE BUTTERBUN” (LONGSNOUT BUTTERFLYFISH)

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (26)

The Atlantic/ Caribbean Longsnout Butterflyfish Prognathodes aculeatus is sometimes known locally as the Longnose (not to be confused with the bright yellow Indo-Pacific Longnose Butterflyfish). The affectionate name for it is ‘Butterbun’. A more scientific name is ‘Poey’s Butterflyfish’, named for the man who first identified the species in 1841.

Mr Felipe Poey

Longnose : Longsnout Butterflyfish  © Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy
These little fish, 2 0r 3 inches long, are commonly found on reefs from Florida down to Venezuela. Unlike most butterflyfishes, they prefer deeper water and have been found at 200 ft; and they tend to be solitary rather than gregarious.
Longnose: Longsnout Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copyLongsnout Butterflyfish (www.whatsthatfish.com)
BUTTERBUN. THAT SUGGESTS THEY ARE PLUMP?

Longsnout Butterflyfish (π Florent's Reef Guide)NOPE!Longsnout Butterflyfish Prognathodes aculeatus (Wiki)

RELATED LINKS

BUTTERFLYFISHES (RH guide to reef, banded, four-eyed & spotfin)

REEF FISH INDEX gateway to loads of colourful finny species

WHAT’S THAT FISH? A handy resource

FLORENT’S GUIDE A ditto

Longnose : Longsnout Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @GB Scuba copy

Credits: Melinda Riger for her brilliant underwater images (as marked); plus What’s That Fish?, Florent’s Guide and good old Wiki…

FORAYS WITH MORAYS (3): LET’S GO GREEN…


Green Moray Eel with Soldierfish (Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba)

FORAYS WITH MORAYS (3): LET’S GO GREEN…

A short while back I posted about SPOTTED MORAYS, which people seem to enjoy. It generated requests for more forays, specifically with green morays. I gotcha – here they are, as promised… All the eels shown below, familiar to the divers who regularly encounter them and given names such as “Judy’ and “Wasabi” (my favourite), were photographed by Scuba expert Melinda Riger, whose skills with a camera are well-known. Let’s go Green…

Like all moray species, Greens like to lurk in convenient hiding places to watch the underwater world – and possible prey – go by. Here are some typical ‘lurking’ shots.Moray Eel, Green, with lunch (eel) emerging from gill ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba Green Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

Green Moray Eel (Judy) ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba Moray Eel, Green (Wasabi) ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba Green Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Green morays also have the unusual breathing apparatus that resemble nasal plugsGreen Moray Eel Melinda Riger @ G B ScubaGreen Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

Those who recall the spotted moray post and their singular dentition arrangements that included a long sharp tooth sticking down from the upper jaw will no doubt be thinking, “are we going be shown any dental close-ups?” But of course… why would I not?

Note the cluster of teeth in the upper jaw, differing from the spotted morayMoray Eel (Yellow) Judy ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Grrrrrrrrrrrrrrr…….Moray Eel, green ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

All photos: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) (5): THE FROGFISH


Frogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) (5): THE FROGFISH

This ‘WTF?’ series started with a relatively conventional species, the REMORA. It has been getting progressively more bizarre. We moved onto an omnium gatherum of WEIRDO FISHES, then the remarkable LETTUCE SEA SLUG, and most recently the BATFISH. Time to ramp up the stakes: with many thanks to scuba expert Adam Rees for use permission for his terrific photos, I present… the FROGFISH.

Frogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

The frogfish is a kind of anglerfish found in almost all tropical and subtropical oceans and seas. There are about 50 different species worldwide, covering an astonishing range of strange appearances. They generally live on the sea floor around coral or rock reefs. In size they vary from tiny to about 15 inches long – although ‘long’ is a flexible concept because they are to an extent shape-changers in height and width.Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works)

FROGFISH SUPERPOWERS YOU MAY WISH TO HAVE

  • INVISIBILITY CLOAK . Frogfish are masters of disguise and camouflage. This enables them to catch their prey with minimal effort and also to avoid predators. Their camouflage methods – broadly known as ‘aggressive mimicry’ – include
    • Ability to change colour for days or even weeks to mimic their surroundings
    • Getting covered in algae and other organic matter that matches their habitat or
    • Looking inherently like a plump rock or in some cases, plant

Fear for the life of the spider crabFrogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

  • IRRESISTIBLE ATTRACTION (just like that nice Mr Grey)
    • A sort of frontal dorsal fin called an illicium to which is attached a
    • Lure called an esca which may mimic a worm, shrimp or small fish etc and which is
    • Retractable in many species and
    • Regenerates if it gets mislaid

The ‘dollop of cream’ thing is the esca. Note the characteristic large mouthFrogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

Spot the escaFrogfish (wiki)

  • BUOYANCY CONTROL & SHAPE-SHIFTING
    • Most frogfish have a ‘gas bladder’ to control their buoyancy.
    • Some species can change shape or even inflate themselves by sucking in quantities of water in a so-called defensive ‘threat display’.

frogfish-black

Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works) Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works)

HOW DO FROGFISH REPRODUCE? 

Although not conventionally attractive creatures, frogfish clearly manage to reproduce. Little is known about the techniques in the wild, but one is probably ‘with care’, especially for a male frogfish who may not survive for long if he hangs around after fertilisation has taken place. It has been noted that females tend to select far smaller males to fertilise their huge numbers of eggs, perhaps for that very reason.

Frogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

FROGFISH FEEDING SKILLS – GOOD OR BAD?

When deploying the lure, potential prey that comes too close to that wide mouth stands no chance. A frogfish will strike in a fraction of a second. Frogfishes have voracious appetites for crustaceans, other fish, and even each other. I can do no better than borrow this vivid description of a feeding frogfish:

“When potential prey is first spotted, the frogfish follows it with its eyes. Then, when it approaches within roughly seven body-lengths, the frogfish begins to move its illicium in such a way that the esca mimics the motions of the animal it resembles. As the prey approaches, the frogfish slowly moves to prepare for its attack; sometimes this involves approaching the prey or “stalking” while sometimes it is simply adjusting its mouth angle. The catch itself is made by the sudden opening of the jaws, which enlarges the volume of the mouth cavity up to twelve-fold, pulling the prey into the mouth along with water. The attack can be as fast as 6 milliseconds. The water flows out through the gills, while the prey is swallowed and the oesophagus closed with a special muscle to keep the victim from escaping. In addition to expanding their mouths, frogfish can also expand their stomachs to swallow animals up to twice their size.

images

HOW DO FROGFISHES GET AROUND? SWIM? WALK? CRAWL?

Frogfishes do not in fact move around a great deal. Using their camo advantages, they prefer to lie on the sea floor and wait for prey to come to them. As mentioned in the quote above, they may slowly approach prey using their pectoral and pelvic fins to “walk” along the sea bottom. They can swim using their tail fin (or in some species by simple ‘jet propulsion’ by forcing water out of their gills) but rarely do so – they don’t feed on the move, and they are adapted to the sea floor environment where they food is readily available. However their “walking” ability is limited to short distances.

frogfish-anglerfisch

DO FROGFISH HAVE OTHER COLOUR SCHEMES?

Indeed they do. In stark contrast to the camo species, some frogfishes are highlighter bright. Here are two of my favourite photos by Adam that show this clearly. I’ve no idea if these are a male and female. I suspect they are different species. I think the brown one is a striated frogfish and the other is… a yellow frogfish. Some people keep these creatures in  aquaria, but apparently it is impossible to sex them, and they have to be kept on their own for everyone’s peace of mind…

Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works) Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works)

FROGFISH INFOGRAPHICS

frogfishFrogfish Infographic 'Monsters of the Deep'

FROGFISH VIDEOS

These two videos, from Lester Knutsen and Daan Van Wijk respectively, show some of the characteristics I have written about above. Both are short and both are fascinating.

To read more about frogfishes and for some fabulous photos I highly recommend the website FROGFISH.CH You can reach the main page(s) but the link seem to be broken so I have not been able to contact Teresa Zubi, whose site it is. She clearly has a sense of humour and uses a neat pair of gifs which I hope she won’t mind my using…

Credits: All main photos, Adam Rees  of Scuba Works with many thanks; wiki for ‘spot the esca’, red quote & basic info; videos Lester Knutsen & Daan Van Wijk; Teresa Zubi for website & gifs; infographics, authors u/k

Frogfish Tee Shirt

FORAYS WITH MORAYS (2): SPOTTED IN THE BAHAMAS…


Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger Grand Bahama Scuba)

FORAYS WITH MORAYS (2): SPOTTED IN THE BAHAMAS…

I’ve been neglecting the moray eels. It’s ages since I did a post about them, and it’s time to put that right. Specifically, time to take a look at Spotted Morays Gymnothorax moringa. These eels can grow up to 2 meters, and live mainly in the sub-tropical waters of the Atlantic. They are solitary creatures, most often seen with just their heads protruding from holes and fissures reefs and r0cks. They have interesting dental arrangements (see below) and their bite is one that, all things being equal, is probably best avoided… Here’s what to look for.

ADULT SPOTTED MORAYSSpotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger Grand Bahama Scuba) Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger Grand Bahama Scuba) Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger Grand Bahama Scuba) Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger Grand Bahama Scuba)

TOOTHSOME CRITTERS (FANGS FOR THE MEMORY…)Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger Grand Bahama Scuba) Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger Grand Bahama Scuba) Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger Grand Bahama Scuba)

WICKLE BABY MORAY. MORAYKIN?BABY Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger Grand Bahama Scuba)

Photo credits: all amazing photos courtesy of Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba; Props to ‘Earl the Eel’ who appears in some of them!