“REEF ENCOUNTER”: TEN CHEERFUL BAHAMAS REEF FISH


Queen Triggerfish  ©Melinda Riger G B Scuba

QUEEN TRIGGERFISH

“REEF ENCOUNTER”: TEN CHEERFUL BAHAMAS REEF FISH

LAURA JESSON “Do you know, I believe we should all behave quite differently if we lived in a warm, sunny climate all the time. We shouldn’t be so withdrawn and shy and difficult…” (Brief Encounter 1945) 

The quote is there both because it is particularly apposite for any withdrawn etc Brit with a toehold in Abaco, and because it explains or excuses the somewhat clumsy title pun… March has been dominated by (a) a trip to Abaco and (b) publication of “The Birds of Abaco”. Time for some cheerful finny  fotos to end the month with, courtesy of diving belle Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba and her top-class camera work.

Cherub Fish © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

CHERUB FISH

Rock Beauty ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

ROCK BEAUTY

Fairy Basslet © Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

FAIRY BASSLET

Blackbar Soldierfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

BLACKBAR SOLDIERFISH

Hamlet (Shy) ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba copy

SHY HAMLET

Three-spot Damselfish  ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba  copy

THREE-SPOT DAMSELFISH

Blue Tang with Blue Chromis © Melinda Riger @GB Scuba copy

BLUE TANG with BLUE CHROMIS

Banded Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

BANDED BUTTERFLYFISH

SPOTTED & SMOOTH TRUNKFISH: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (16)


Spotted Trunkfish Lactophrys bicaudalis (wiki)

SPOTTED & SMOOTH TRUNKFISH: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (16)

THE SPOTTED TRUNKFISH is a reef fish distinctive for its dark spots on a silvery-white background. It’s very wrong of me to comment, I know, but arguably its appearance is amusing. It probably feels the same about divers with all their gear…Trunkfish ©Melinda Riger @GBS copyTrunkfish © Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba copy 2

However the trunkfish deserves to be treated with due respect. When touched, they secrete a colourless toxin from glands on their skin. The toxin is only dangerous when ingested, so divers are unlikely to be harmed by the it.  Predators however are at risk, and creatures as large as nurse sharks are known to have died as a result of eating a trunkfish.

THE SMOOTH TRUNKFISH is almost a negative of the spotted trunkfish, with white spots on a dark background rather than vice versa. Adults develop hexagonal patterning on their sides. They also secrete toxins and are best left untouched. Their ability to pucker up is impressive…Trunkfish (Wiki)Trunkfish © Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama ScubaLactophrys triqueter (Smooth Trunkfish) juvenile Wiki

“Coming at you…” Here is the extraordinary pouting triangular creature you will seeSmooth Trunkfish Lactophrys triqueter (Wiki)Photo Credits: Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba; additional props to Wiki

FRENCH ANGELS: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (15)


French Angelfish Pomacanthus wiki

FRENCH ANGELS: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (15)

JUVENILE FRENCH ANGELFISH – BLACK WITH YELLOW BANDSFrench Angelfish (juv)

The French angelfish Pomacanthus paru is found in the western Atlantic  and in parts of the eastern Atlantic. They are mainly seen around shallow reefs, often in pairs. They feed on sponges, algae, soft corals and small invertebrates.

ADULT FRENCH ANGELFISHFrench Angelfish ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

Juveniles are extremely useful members of the reef fish community, providing cleaning stations. They service many species including jacks, snappers, morays, grunts, surgeonfishes, and wrasses, removing parasites.French Angelfish ©Melinda Riger @ GBS

Angelfish are monogamous, and defend their territory robustly.  They swim around the reef during the day but at night they shelter in so-called ‘hiding spots’, which they return to each evening.wikiFrench Angelfish 2 ©Melinda Riger @ GBS

Credits: Melinda Riger (Grand Bahama Scuba); Wiki

THE TANG OF THE BAHAMIAN SEAS… BLUE TANG, IN FACT


Blue Tang School ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

THE TANG OF THE BAHAMIAN SEAS… BLUE TANG, IN FACT 

The Blue Tang Acanthurus coeruleus is a species of Atlantic surgeonfish mostly found on coral reefs. They are known as surgeonfish because they can slice you with their sharp, spiny caudal fins. Adults are blue, ranging from a deep blue or even purplish to much paler blue.fish28Blue Tang ©Melinda Riga @ G B ScubaBlue Tang ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Surprisingly, as juveniles, Blue Tang are bright yellow.Blue Tang (juv) © Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba Blue Tang (juv yellow form) © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

As they grow, they become blue, with the tail being the last part to lose the yellow.Blue Tang (Juvenile) ©Melinda Riger@ G B Scuba Blue Tang (juv, changing colour) © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Blue Tang are herbivores, cruising constantly round reefs feeding on algae. They also act as cleaners of other fish species, removing parasites. They themselves may be cleaned by gobies by visiting so-called ‘cleaning stations’. These piscine beauty parlours have a medicinal purpose as well, since cleaning helps to cure minor wounds.

These fish often move around reefs in large schools, as shown in the header image. Apart from having some value as an aquarium fish, they are not generally of use to humans. Their spiny caudal fins can cause a nasty wound. They have an unpleasant smell. Their flesh supposedly contains toxins, and they carrying a risk of the disease CIGUATERA. I can’t even find a recipe for them online – now, that is a bad sign, there are some people who will try anything. I guess best to boil them for an hour or two, drain the water, allow to cool, and throw away the fish.

FUN FACT In the Disney/Pixar film Finding Nemo, the character Dory (voiced by Ellen DeGeneres) is a blue tang.

Blue Tang, Abaco fish22

BLUE TANG: THE MOVIE [RE-RELEASE]

“RECIPE Take one incompetent swimmer who hasn’t snorkelled in, oh, nearly 40 years. Place him over a coral reef for his first time ever. Add a small underwater camera totally alien to him. Immerse for 30 minutes in warm briny water. Lessons have been learnt for next time. Mainly, don’t keep waving the camera about; let the fish move round you rather than vice versa; and most important of all, remember to keep breathing or else…

Here is BLUE TANG: THE MOVIE (music by Adrian Legg), 45 secs of advanced camera-shake with some beautiful fish more or less in shot for most of the time. If you are prone to sea-sickness, do not enlarge the video. If you are allergic to poor photography… well, thanks for visiting.”

Credits: Good pictures, Melinda; bad pictures and execrable movie, not Melinda

SUBMARINE SUPERMODELS: POUTS & GLAM EYES OF BAHAMAS REEF FISH


SUBMARINE SUPERMODELS

THE POUTS & GLAM EYES OF BAHAMAS REEF FISH

I have been idly filing away some stunning close-up reef denizen images by Melinda Riger. A Monday morning is the perfect time to showcase some pouts, poses and glad eyes from the ‘catfish walk’, starting with my absolute favourite…

A COWFISH** PERFECTS THE POUTCowfish ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

A GREEN MORAY EEL SMILES STRAIGHT TO CAMERAGreen Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba copy

THE QUEEN ANGELFISH ‘LOVES’ THE LENSQueen Angelfish © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

A GROUPER DOES THE ‘OPEN-MOUTH’ GAPE'Bruno' ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

THIS SCHOOLMASTER SNAPPER MAY NOT HAVE GOT QUITE WHAT IT TAKESSchoolmaster Snapper ©Melinda Riger GB Scuba copy 

NICE EYES, BUT THE PETITE SAND-DIVER NEEDS TO BE A LITTLE MORE OUTGOINGSand Diver Fish copy

AS DOES THE SOUTHERN STINGRAYSouthern Stingray ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

HOWEVER THE PEACOCK FLOUNDER IS ROCKING THE MAKE-UP BOXPeacock Flounder Eye ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

THE OCTOPUS IS MOODY &  WON’T GET OUT OF BED FOR LESS THAN 20 MOLLUSCSOctopus ©Melinda Riger GB Scuba copy

AND REGRETTABLY THE POOR CONCH HAS A BAD STAGE FRIGHTConch Eyes ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba copy 2

For more octopus information and a discussion of the correct plural (choice of 3) CLICK HERE

For a post about underwater species camouflage CLICK HERE

**Since I posted this earlier today, I have been asked (re photo 1) what the… the… heck a Cowfish looks like, when it’s not puckering up while facing you. The answer is: stunningly glamorous…

Cowfish ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba copy

Thanks as ever to Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba for use permission for her fab photos; tip of the dorsal fin to Wiki for the shark eye header pic

HAMLETS (NOT GLOOMY DANES): BAHAMAS REEF FISH (14)


SHY HAMLET (Wiki) JPG

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (14): HAMLETS (NOT GLOOMY DANES)

“Oh, that this too too solid flesh would melt, thaw and…” Ah! Sorry. I’m soliloquising again. Must be Thursday. And the merest mention of Hamlet is enough to set anyone off. But I speak not of noble yet gloomy Danes of Elsinore and of discernibly introspective aspect. These ones are pretty reef fish of the Caribbean seas, mainly in the Bahamas and along the Florida coast. There are a number of different types of hamlet, of which the 4 featured below in Melinda’s amazing underwater images were were encountered in one dive.

SHY (OR GOLDEN) HAMLETShy Hamlet ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama ScubaShy Hamlet ©Melinda Riger GB Scuba

Hamlets have outstandingly interesting reproductive skills, being ‘synchronous hermaphrodites’. They have the unusual benefit of having both male and female sexual organs as adults, permitting imaginative combinations of pairings (though not including self-fertilization). When they find a mate, “the pair takes turns between which one acts as the male and which acts as the female through multiple matings, usually over the course of several nights”. I don’t dare check whether there are websites that cater for this sort of energetic coupling. The wonder is that Hamlets preferentially mate with individuals of their same colour pattern, and that they are not more wanton with their attentions and sexual flexibility.

INDIGO HAMLETIndigo Hamlet ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba.jpg

BARRED HAMLETBarred Hamlet ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba.jpg

BUTTER HAMLETButter Hamlet ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama ScubaButter Hamlet ©Melinda Riger GB Scuba

OPTIONAL CULTURAL, HISTORICAL & MUSICAL DIVERSION INSPIRED BY HAMLET

The other notable Hamlet is, of course, the mild cigar equated in the famed commercials with happiness, accompanied by an excerpt from a jazzy version of Bach’s ‘Air on the G String’. Here is one of the best – and possibly the only advert to my knowledge to feature not one, but two excellent Sir Walter Raleigh jokes.

Bach’s well-known descending chord sequence of was of course shamelessly ripped off by ingeniously adapted by Procol Harum for ‘A Whiter Shade of Pale’, their first single in 1967. Relive the Summer of Love right here and now. Is this the music that might even put those versatile hamlets in the mood…


Any fret-tweakers might like to see the sheet music of the Air for guitar – you could even play it on air guitar – which is relatively easy, being in C major.Air on a G String - J S Bach - Guitar Tab JPGCredits: All fish pics Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba, except wiki-header; open-source online material; my mp3, dammit – I can’t get the wretched tune out of my mind…

QUEEN ANGELFISH: COLOURFUL CORAL ROYALTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (13)


Holacanthus ciliaris (Wiki)QUEEN ANGELFISH: COLOURFUL CORAL ROYALTY – BAHAMAS REEF FISH (13)

One of the earliest posts in the Bahamas Reef Fish series was about Queen Angelfish Holacanthus ciliaris, and you can see it HERE. I make no apology for returning with some more recent photos from Melinda Riger – these fish deserve plenty of attention for their wonderful bright presence that stands out even amongst the colourful corals of the reef.

This first image is remarkable for its clarity and composition. What, I wonder, is the fish saying to Melinda as she presses the camera button? All caption suggestions welcome…Queen Angelfish © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Angelfish are quite happy  to swim round either way upQueen Angelfish (Juv) ©Melinda Riger @ GB ScubaQueen Angelfish (juv) ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

The juvenile of the species, nosing around the coral for tasty morsels,  is equally colourfulQueen Angelfish (juv) Melinda Riger @ G B ScubaQueen Angelfish Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

TIGER GROUPER Mycteroperca tigris – BAHAMAS REEF FISH (12)


TIGER GROUPER Mycteroperca tigris – BAHAMAS REEF FISH (12)

Tiger Grouper ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

The grouper family is a large one, and a number of varieties of the species inhabit Bahamas waters. Like most groupers, these are denizens of coral reefs. An adult grouper may grow to 3 ft long and weigh in the region of 10 lbs. 

Tiger Grouper ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Groupers are effective predators, with strong gills that enable them to suck their prey into their large mouths from a short distance away. They will eat smaller fish, crustaceans, and even OCTOPUSES (click to discover the correct plural form for this creature).

Tiger Grouper 2Tiger Grouper copy

Many divers become familiar with the groupers of the reefs they explore, and some of the fish are given pet names. They are often distinguished from each other by distinctive markings or injury scars. More varieties of grouper will be on show soon; though it has to be said that this series will be no beauty parade… (see above and below for further details)

Tiger GrouperAll photos: Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

UPDATE I’ve found a video of a tiger grouper off Nassau sizing up the photographer, before swimming away

STICKING THEIR NECKS OUT: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (11)


Spinyhead Blenny

STICKING THEIR NECKS OUT: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (11)

The coral reefs of the Bahamas provide a home for a myriad of subaquatic creatures and plants. Not necessarily a safe one, though. Some species prefer to remain largely hidden to reduce the chances of becoming part of the lengthy reef food chain. Rocks, of course, can offer some security, but also the sandy bottom. Even brain coral can provide some protection…

JAWFISHJawfish ©Melinda Riger @GBS

This Yellowhead Jawfish has its eggs safely stored in its mouthYellowhead Jawfish with eggs in mouth ©Melinda Riger GB Scuba

SAND DIVER FISHSand Diver Fish Sand Diver ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

ROUGHHEAD BLENNY IN BRAIN CORAL (and header)Roughhead Blenny ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba Blenny ©Melinda Riger @GBS

…and in a different homeRoughhead Blenny © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

MANTIS SHRIMPMantis Shrimp ©Melinda Riger @GBSMantis Shrimp 2 ©Melinda Riger @GBS

…AND A VERY GOOD AFTERNOON TO YOU TOO, MR SPOTTED MORAY EELSpotted Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @ G B ScubaAll Images: thanks to Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba

FORAYS WITH MORAYS: EEL APPEAL IN THE BAHAMAS


Wasabi the Eel 2

FORAYS WITH MORAYS: EEL APPEAL IN THE BAHAMAS

MORAY EELS are found in most oceans, with around 200 species worldwide. In Bahamian waters, the 3 most common are the green, yellow and spotted morays, all featured below. These ones have been given affectionate names by the divers who encounter them regularly in their home surroundings – Rico, Judy, Wasabi and Earl. Moray Eel

Morays have something of a reputation for aggression, though (like many creatures with teeth) they much prefer to swim away or hide rather than attack. They will defend themselves resolutely, however, so it might be a mistake the get too close.Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @GBS

Hand-feeding morays has become a popular dive activity. However there can be drawbacks. They have poor vision, and may find it difficult to distinguish between food, finger-food and fingers. There are many cases of divers who have lost a finger while hand-feeding moray eels; in some places it has been banned. Yellow Moray Eel©Melinda Riger @GBS copy

The moray eel has strong clamping jaws, and its sharp teeth point backwardsMoray Eel mouth (interior)Green Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @GBS

This has two effects. A finger will be held as if by a fish-hook barb; and the eel will not release the grip of its powerful jaws without them being prised apart.Wasabi the Moray Eel

Moray eels have a strong sense of smell, and curious nostrilsMoray Eel (Rico) ©Melinda Riger @GBSMoray Eel copy

Finally, here are two images of a fine spotted moray eel known as ‘Earl’, and a video of a different one%22Earl the Eel%22Spotted Moray Eel ©Melinda Riger @ GBS

Credits: All images ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

 

‘SLOW BLUES IN SEA’: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (10)


BLUES IN C tab

‘SLOW BLUES IN SEA’: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (10)

Albert King, Lead Belly and Mike Bloomfield are prime examples of foremost bluesmen guitar-slingers who, in their own distinctive styles, favoured the key of… I’m sorry, what did you say? Oh yes, quite right. My misunderstanding. Apologies, I’ll take it from the top…

Deep blue sea. Deep blue fish. *Deep breath*. All better now. The fish below may all readily be found nosing around the coral reefs of the Bahamas in a leisurely manner. Mostly, they are feeding. Fowl Cay Marine Preserve, Abaco, is a great place for watching them. No need to have all the gear – a simple snorkel, mask and flippers, and an ability to float a bit, would be sufficient.

BLUE CHROMIS Chromis cyanea

Blue Chromis, Fowl Cay, Abaco fish12 These dazzling little blue fish will be one of the first you’ll meet (along with the omnipresent yellow and black striped sergeant majors, so friendly they will come right up to your mask). You can’t miss them. Though very small, their electric blue colouring cuts through the water even on the dullest of days up-top. They can reach 5 inches in length, but most that you see will be tiddlers. They are frequently seen in the company of larger fish.Blue Chromis ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Blue Chromis ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

BLUE PARROTFISH Scarus coeruleusBlue Parrot Fish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Parrotfish play a vital part in the ecology and health of the coral reef. They graze on algae, cleaning the coral and grinding the surface with their teeth. They take the nutrients and excrete the rest as… sand. This helps to form your beach! To find out more about their uses and habits, click PARROTFISH. You’ll find a great deal of interesting info about the species, conveniently compressed into factual bullet points. Blue parrotfish 2Blue Parrotfish

BLUE TANG Acanthurus coeruleus

The blue tang is a type of surgeonfish, all-blue except for a yellow spot near the tail. The blueness can vary considerably, from very pale to dark. They tend to swim elegantly around in large groups.Blue Tang ©Melinda Riga @ G B Scuba Blue Tang ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Here are some images of schools of blue tang that I took with a cheapo underwater camera at Fowl Cay. They are a lovely sight as they drift slowly past alongside the reef. The top one also has a sergeant major (see above).fishx fishu4 Blue Tang, Abaco fish28 fish20

CREOLE WRASSE Clepticus parraeCreole Wrasse ©Melinda Riger @GBS

This wrasse can grow up to a foot long, and may be found at considerable depths on deep-water reefs – 300 feet or more. They are active by day, and hide in rock clefts at night. This species is sociable, moving around in shoals. They develop yellow markings with age. Creole Wrasse School ©Melinda Riger @GBS

QUEEN TRIGGERFISH Balistes vetula

There are several species of triggerfish. The queen is capable of changing colour to match its surroundings, or (it is said) if subjected to stress. I think we have all been there. It is an aggressive and territorial fish, and its favourite prey is the sea urchin, a testament to its courage…Queen Triggerfish

QUEEN ANGELFISH (JUVENILE)

I have featured this species before HERE, and strictly it as much yellow as blue. But the blue earns double points, surely, for its startling vividness. Anyway, I like the way it hangs casually upside down, and the bubbles in this photo.

Juvenile Queen Angel ©Melinda Riger GB Scuba

Credits: Good photos – Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba; Poor photos – RH

From time to time I end a post with something musical. Just for fun (toxic concept). So here is a real “Slow Blues in C” from the fantastic guitarist Stefan Grossman off  his eclectic ‘Yazoo Basin Boogie’ album. 22 quality tracks. Buy from Am*z*n – much cheaper than iT*nes.    


                                                  

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BEAUTIFUL DAMSELS: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (9)


Cocoa_damselfish

BEAUTIFUL DAMSELS: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (9)

YELLOWTAIL DAMSELFISHBICOLOR DAMSELFISHBicolor Damsel ©Melinda Riger @ G B ScubaCOCOA DAMSELFISHJuvenile Cocoa DamelfishTHREE-SPOT DAMSELFISH (JUV)

THREE-SPOT DAMSELFISHPhoto credits: Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba (except header image – Wiki-cheers)

‘UNDERWATER BUTTERFLIES’: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (8)


Spotfin Butterfly Fish

UNDERWATER BUTTERFLIES: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (8)

Butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) belong to a large worldwide family of small, colourful reef fishes. There are several sorts to be found in the Bahamas, of which 4 are shown below. These creatures resemble small angel fishes, and are invariably vividly coloured, strikingly patterned, or in many cases, both. Apart from that, the most interesting fact about them is that their species name  Chaetodontidae derives from a Greek compound noun meaning ‘hair tooth’. This unsettling description relates to the rows of tiny, fine filament-like teeth inside their protuberant mouths. If I ever get a photo of a butterflyfish showing its teeth while feeding or yawning, I will add it here…

FOUR-EYED BUTTERFLYFISHFour-eyed Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @GBS

REEF BUTTERFLYFISH

Reef Butterfly Fish ©Melinda Riger GB ScubaReef Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

SPOTFIN BUTTERFLYFISHSpotfin Butterfly Fish 2

BANDED BUTTERFLYFISH

Banded Butterflyfish ©Melinda Riger @GBSPhoto Credit: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba

MASTERS OF UNDERWATER CAMOUFLAGE: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (7)


BAHAMAS MASTERS OF UNDERWATER CAMOUFLAGE

SCORPIONFISHScorpionfish camouflaged against coral ©Melinda RigerScorpionfish Close-up ©Melinda Riger @GBS

PEACOCK FLOUNDER or PLATE FISH Bothus lunatusPeacock Flounder Peacock FlounderPeacock Flounder ©Melinda Riger @ GB ScubaPhotos: Melinda at Grand Bahama Scuba

This is my last post until next week, when apparently we can expect a snowy welcome. Hmmmm. Plenty of new material for kind followers – both of you..

20130321-075611.jpg

DELPHI DAWN

PARROTFISH: COLOURFUL CORAL CHARACTERS BAHAMAS REEF FISH (6)


Stoplight Parrotfish ©RH

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (5) PARROTFISH: COLOURFUL CORAL CHARACTERS

The term ‘PARROTFISH’ comprises many related species (80) around the world  inhabiting shallow tropical and subtropical waters.  They are commonly found in coral reefs and seagrass beds, and along rocky coasts. They play a significant role in BIOEROSION. Here are some examples of 5 of this species that inhabit the waters of the Northern Bahamas

BLUE PARROTFISHBlue Parrotfish copy 2

PARROTFISH FACTS TO ASTOUND AND IMPRESS YOUR FRIENDS WITH

A. FEEDING HABITS

1. Named for their dental arrangements – a mouthful of teeth, forming the characteristic ‘beak’

2. Primarily herbivore but not above snacking on small creatures / organisms or even molluscs

3. Their teeth grow continuously, replacing ones worn away by feeding on coral

4. As they feed on algae etc, their teeth grind up the coral, which they  ingest

5. Then (get this!) they digest it and excrete it as sand… it’s a component of your favourite beach!

6. “One parrotfish can produce 90 kilograms (200 lb) of sand each year”. Wiki says so – it must be true

7. They are a vital species in preventing algae from choking coral

PRINCESS PARROTFISHPrincess ParrotfishQUEEN PARROTFISH (initial phase)

B. PERSONAL INFORMATION (theirs, I mean)

1. Some species secrete a protective mucous cocoon to sleep in or to conceal themselves from predators

2. A mucous substance also helps heal damage, repel parasites, & protect them from UV light

3. As they develop, most species change colour significantly to become vivid adults – “polychromatism”

4. Some juveniles can change colour temporarily to mimic other species as a protection

5. Most are “sequential hermaphrodites”, turning from female to male (a few change vice versa)

6. They tend to hang out in groups of similarly-sized / -developed fish

7. Single males tend to have several lady friends, and aggressively defend their love rights

8. Parrotfish are PELAGIC SPAWNERS. Females release many tiny buoyant eggs into the water, which float freely and settle into the coral until they hatch

9. Unlike other fishes, they use their pectoral fins to propel themselves

10. Their feeding behaviour makes them unsuitable for marine aquariums

RAINBOW PARROTFISH& Royal Grammas

Anyone interested in getting more information about Parrotfishes – maybe about that whole female / male transformation thing? – is recommended to look at an article by Tim Smith of Miami University, Ohio entitled THE BAHAMAS: A CLOSER LOOK AT THE COLORFUL AND UNIQUE PARROTFISH Click on the P-word to get to it directly.

If you are pressed for time, here is the article conveniently digested into bullet points:

  • a superior competitor among herbivorous reef fishes
  • large, heavy scales in regular rows on head and body, with teeth fused together to form a beak-like jaw
  • unique pharyngeal dentition: upper interlocking pharyngeal bones located above the gills rest plush against the lower pharyngeal bone to form the pharyngeal mill (molar-like teeth in their throats) used to grind up the hard coral skeleton that contains microscopic algae
  • the crushed calcareous material travels through the fish’s digestive system and is voided on the reef as white coral sand
  • some fish will return to the same location to deposit this calcareous powder resulting in the formation of small hills over time
  • most parrotfish live on reefs from which they rarely wander far
  • rainbow parrotfish are thought to use the sun for navigation to travel from its nocturnal cave in deeper water to the shore to feed
  • all parrotfish uniquely use the pectoral fins located behind the gills for propulsion (not their caudal or tail fins)
  • in addition to scraping algae from substrate, some parrotfish browse on sea grasses
  • at night, each fish separates to search for a suitable place within the reef to sleep.
  • the large, thick scales of the parrotfish are strong enough to stop a spear in some species
  • the flesh is soft and spoils quickly, the parrotfish is not known as a food fish in the Bahamas
  • in Hawaii they are eaten raw and at one time were reserved for royalty
  • the blue parrotfish may carry ciguatera-producing toxins that result in illness when consumed
  • it’s high time for another picture or two

REDBAND PARROTFISH

Some more bullet points from Tim Smith’s article:

  • at night some species simply burrow into the sand
  • others secrete a filmy mucus cocoon in 30 minutes which masks its scent, affording the parrotfish protection from coral reef night predators such as sharks and moray eels.
  • the parrotfish has the ability to undergo sex reversal in which female fish become males
  • parrotfish born male remain male throughout their lives and are called primary males.
  • female born fish may change sex & color to become male – secondary males or referred to as supermales or terminal males.
  • some parrotfish are chameleon-like, changing their colors to match their surroundings.
  • parrotfish spawn throughout the year
  • there are 80 species of parrotfish
  • the vibrantly colored parrotfish plays a major role in maintaining the cycle of reef growth and erosion
  • “Do not be alarmed if you experience a sudden drift of sediment or hear the crunching sound of coral the next time you are snorkeling or diving along a coral reef in the Bahamas. It is just a parrotfish doing its job.”
  • I sense a stoplight is about to interrupt the proceedings… and here it is

STOPLIGHT PARROTFISH (adult and, below, juvenile form)Thanks to Melinda of Grand Bahama Scuba for her fantastic illustrative pics; the header is mine own

It’s possible that I won’t be quite as attentive with posts / replies to comments etc over the next couple of weeks or so. I’ve a few things in the pipeline, but it may depend on wifi access… I’m giving up trying to use an iPhone to post while on the move – fine for snaps, but not for anything more complicated. So apologies in advance, and like Arnie, I’m afraid I’ll be back…

Gone Fishin'Relax... at Lubbers Quarters

GRAY ANGELFISH (Pomacanthus arcuatus) BAHAMAS REEF FISH (3)



Gray_angelfish
Gray Angelfish

GRAY ANGELFISH (Pomacanthus arcuatus) BAHAMAS REEF FISH (3)

I recently posted about the highly coloured QUEEN ANGELFISH, a striking coral reef resident glowing with fluorescent blues and yellows. It’s the Angelfish that went into showbiz and succeeded. Its close cousin the Gray Angelfish is a more sedate creature, with the appearance of a professional – law, possibly, or medicine. That thin blue fin-edging suggests a flamboyant streak. Slightly mean mouth? Lawyer.**Gray Angelfish ©Melinda Riger GB Scuba

This species is found in the warm waters of Florida, and south through the Bahamas and Caribbean as far as Brazil. They are found at depths from 2 m. down to 30 m. You are most likely to encounter one on a coral reef feeding on sponges, its main diet.  The fish below with the bluer face is a teenager, in transition between juvenile and adult. Gray Angelfish between juvenile and adult phase

It’s clear from side on that Gray Angelfish are ‘upright flat’, but it’s surprising just how slim they actually are. Photographer Melinda Riger has captured this front view against a stunning red backdrop. Disappointingly, these fish seem to lead blameless and anodyne lives as reef-foragers, and I’ve been unable to turn up a single interesting fact about them. That’s lawyers for you.**Gray Angelfish (front view) ©Melinda RigerGray Angelfish ©Melinda Riga @ BP ScubaPhoto Credits: main images ©Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba; Header – Wikipix

** I can say this – I am one…

QUEEN ANGELFISH (Holacanthus ciliaris) – BAHAMAS REEF FISH (2)


Queen Angelfish Holacanthus ciliaris

QUEEN ANGELFISH (Holacanthus ciliaris)  - BAHAMAS REEF FISH (2)

The Queen Angel is one of several reef fish species where the difference in colouring between juveniles and adults is marked.  They are commonly found in the waters of Florida and the Bahamas, with a range extending to the Gulf of Mexico. Adults can grow to 3.5 lbs (to mix metric with avoirdupois) and they can live up to 15 years. Like all Angelfish, they rely on their pectoral fins for propulsion as they forage on the reefs for their mixed diet of sponges, coral, plankton, algae, and even jellyfish. As the photo below shows, they have no problem swimming upside down…

QUEEN ANGELFISH (JUVENILE) Juvenile Queen Angel ©Melinda Riger GB Scuba

Evidence suggests that adult Queen Angels may form ‘monogamous’ pairings. Brief research in the factosphere suggests that the proposition is somewhat tenuous. Maybe pairs just like hanging out - possibly to gain some territorial advantage – and anthropomorphising that into lifelong partnership terms may be overstating the relationship… Whether wed for life or not, the actual mating process is remarkably efficient. The pair snuggle up close, simultaneously releasing large quantities of sperm and tens of thousands of eggs. The fertilised eggs hatch within a day. Respect!

QUEEN ANGELFISH (ADULT)Queen Angel fish ©Melinda Riger GB ScubaQueen Angelfish ©Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama ScubaQueen Angelfish (juv) ©Melinda Riger @GBS

Photo Credits for the amazing main images: ©Melinda Riger (Grand Bahama Scuba), with thanks; header image WikiPic