“CLEANING UP”: HOW TINY REEF FISH HELP LARGE FISH


Black Grouper - Arnold - Cleaning Station - Neon Gobies ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

“CLEANING UP”: HOW TINY REEF FISH HELP LARGE FISH

A while ago now, I wrote a detailed post about so-called fish ‘cleaning stations’ – the special spots on the reef where large fish can go to have small fish buff up their scales and floss their teeth. You can read all about it HERE.

I have accumulated a number of new photos from expert scuba diver and underwater photographer Melinda Riger that demonstrate this phenomenon. A big fish with a normally voracious appetite will patiently wait while gobies and other small fry go about their work. This often involves actually entering the mouth of the (as it must seem to them) monster to pick the insides and the teeth clean. There is an extraordinary understanding and trust between the species that means during the operation, the little fish are perfectly safe. Here are some examples, of which the very recent header image of a grouper named Arnold is quite outstanding.

Tiger Grouper + cleaner goby ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copyGrouper, Black at cleaning station ©Melinda Riger @G B Scuba copy Tiger Grouper at cleaning station ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy Tiger Grouper being cleaned ©Melinda Riger @G B Scuba copy

It is not just gobies that attend the fish. Various species of shrimp also volunteer for the job.

Tiger Grouper with cleaning shrimps and goby ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy Grouper being cleaned ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

Groupers are not the only species to make use of cleaning stations. Here is a dog snapper at the same cleaning station as the grouper in the header image. Below is a stingray being attended to.

Dog Snapper at cleaning station ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

Southern Stingray with cleaning gobiesStingray, Southern with cleaning gobies ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

GRAMMATICAL DIGRESSION There is this ‘thing’ about the correct use of the words ‘fish’ and ‘fishes’ in the plural form. The basic principle is simple: ‘fish’ where you are referring to several of the same species; ‘fishes’ where more than one species is involved. I don’t care. My policy is to use ‘fish’ as the plural on all occasions, so I don’t have to think about it. Pedants, look away now.

RELATED POSTS

TAKEN TO THE CLEANERS

BANDED CORAL (‘CLEANER’) SHRIMP

TIGER GROUPER

BLACK GROUPER

All photos: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba

“CALLING ELVIS” (THE SQUIRRELFISH, NOT THE MAN)


Squirrelfish Elvis ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

“CALLING ELVIS” (THE SQUIRRELFISH, NOT THE MAN)

How proud The King would be to know that his name lives on in the form of an attractive though sadly unmusical Bahamian squirrelfish. This little guy is at least 5 years old. What is more, he has lived at the same address all that time, defending it against usurpers and protecting himself from predators in its safe depths. Here is the loveable little Elvis photographed at home between 2012 and 2016 (header image), the master of his own underwater Graceland…

Squirrelfish (%22Elvis%22) ©Melinda Riger GB ScubaElvis the Squirrelfish ©Melinda Riger GB Scuba Squirrelfish ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba Squirrelfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

The reason that Elvis has such large eyes is that these fish are mostly nocturnal, and (apart from when Melinda is out with her camera), he and his friends spend most of the day either at home, or in crevices, small rock caves, or under ledges. However, here are a couple of shots of Elvis out and about, enjoying some quality time among the corals.

Squirrelfish (Elvis) ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama ScubaSquirrel Fish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

ROLLING HARBOUR MUSICAL DIGRESSION

I so wanted to add a specific Elvis catalogue ‘Musical Digression’, but try as I might, there is no title in The King’s discography that has any potential for finny nuance or piscine pun value. However, here’s a track from the now tragically unhip Dire Straits on their follow-up album to the phenomenal ‘Brothers-in-Arms’, the much under-rated ‘On Every Street’. I give you… Calling Elvis, a song that cunningly contains as many titles of Presley hits as anyone could ever wish for.

All images: Melinda Riger at Grand Bahama Scuba; cartoon from a sequence on the excellent BCCR Defenses page – learn about camouflage and other fishy self-protection techniques

Nocturnal squirrelfish checks out a parrotfish’s sleeping arrangementscamoSquirrWparrot01

BLUE CHROMIS: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (29)


Blue Chromis & Coral ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

BLUE CHROMIS: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (29)

The little blue chromis Chromis cyanea will be instantly familiar to any snorkeler or scuba diver on the coral reefs of the Bahamas. These ever-present small fish – 6 inches long at most – are remarkable for their iridescent deep blue colour that flashes as they dart in and out of the coral and anemones of the reef.

Blue Chromis ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Although at first sight  this chromis species – one of many – looks blue all over, adults have a black dorsal stripe and black edging to their fins. They make colourful additions to aquariums, though to my mind they look far more attractive nosing about the reefs foraging for the zooplankton upon which they feed (see header image for details…)

Blue Chromis ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

The blue chromis was the second fish species I encountered on my first ever reef dive, at Fowl Cay Marine Preserve with Kay Politano. The first fish was the endearingly inquisitive sergeant major with its smart black and yellow stripes which came right up to my googles to eyeball me. I loved that, even though my pitiful swimming technique meant that I had plenty of other distractions, not least remembering to breathe. Air, that is, rather than water.

Blue Chromis ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Chromis_cyanea_(blue_chromis)_(San_Salvador_Island,_Bahamas)

SO JUST HOW BIG ARE THESE FISH, COMPARED, SAY, TO A BLUE TANG?

Blue Tang with blue chromis in its wakeBlue Tang with Blue Chromis © Melinda Riger @GB Scuba copy

All photos Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scube, except the penultimate by James St John, taken in San Salvador

 

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH) (6): THE SAND DIVER


Sand Divers Bahamas ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH) (6): THE SAND DIVER

Time for another in the WTF? series, featuring weird (begging their pardons) or not very fish-like fish. The Sand Diver Synodus intermedius is a type of lizardfish found in subtropical waters and often around coral reefs. They can grow up to about 18 inches long and a prime specimen might weigh a couple of pounds. The markings are quite variable but one common characteristic seems to be a tendency to look somewhat down in the mouth; and to possess jaws full of tiny sharp teeth.

Sand Diver - ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Sand divers have two rows of teeth on their upper jaw and three rows on their lower jaw. Not content with that, they also have rows of teeth on the palate and tongue. Were they 50 times the size, they would be truly awesome.

Sand Diver ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

The rather primitive appearance of the sand diver is explicable from fossils, which show that their forbears  were active in the Jurassic / Cretacean periods.

Sand Diver ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

HOW DO THEY GET THEIR NAME?

Sand divers often bury themselves in the sand with only their head showing. They are so-called ‘ambush predators’, and burial is one method they use. Another is simply to lie on the sandy bottom, or on reef surfaces and wait for passing prey. Their colouring provides very good camouflage.Sand Diver Fish

WHAT’S ON A SAND DIVER MENU?

A good mix of small reef fishes. Bar jacks, blue chromis, wrasses, fairy basslets, small grunts and so forth. At their own level they are quite fearsome predators.

Sand Diver © Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

ARE THEY ON THE HUMAN MENU?

Well, I knew someone would ask that, so I carried out a search. The answer seems to be no. I have found nothing to suggest that they are edible, or that anyone has tried (or if they have, survived to tell the tale). Incidentally, the best way to find out if something is edible by humans is to search for a recipe. There are no sand diver recipes.

Sand Diver ©Fred Riger @ G B Scuba

All photos: Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba

BAHAMAS REEF CORAL: A COLOURFUL GALLERY


Orange Cup Coral ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

BAHAMAS REEF CORAL:  A COLOURFUL GALLERY

The reefs of the northern Bahamas, as elsewhere in the world, are affected by two significant factors: climate change and pollution. Stepping carefully over the sharp pointy rocks of controversy, I’ve avoided the term ‘global warming’ and any associated implication that humans (oh, and methane from cows) are largely to blame for the first factor; but on any view, ocean pollution is the responsibility of mankind (and not even the cows). 

That said, an exploration of the reefs of Abaco or Grand Bahama will reveal not just the astounding variety of mobile marine life but also the plentiful and colourful static marine life – for example the beautiful and Christmassy orange cup coral in the header image. Here are some more corals from the reefs, with a mix of sponges added in. 

Giant Star Coral & Rope Sponge ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copyCorals ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy 2Corals ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copySea Fans & other corals ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba copy

This rather intriguing photo shows a hermit crab’s conch home that presumably the occupant grew out of and left behind in the delicate coral branches as it went search of a more spacious shell dwelling.Coral & conch ex crab home 1380179_645156602172399_300806994_n copy

Credits: All these wonderful photos are by Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba; tendentious reef health observations are mine own…

HAWKSBILL TURTLES: WONDERFUL… & CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


Hawksbill Turtle ©Virginia Cooper @ G B Scuba

HAWKSBILL TURTLES: WONDERFUL… & CRITICALLY ENDANGERED

Hawksbill Turtle ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy 3

Hawksbill turtles are found throughout the tropical waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. They avoid deep waters, preferring coastlines where sponges are abundant and sandy nesting sites are within reach. They are normally found near reefs rich in the sponges they like to feed on. Hawksbills are omnivorous and will also eat molluscs, marine algae, crustaceans, sea urchins, fish, and jellyfish. 

Hawksbill Turtle Range (Nat Geo)map-hawksbill-turtle-160-cb1447865323

Turtle with Gray Angelfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

WHY ARE HAWKSBILLS CRITICALLY ENDANGERED?

  1. Despite the protection of their shells, turtles are predated on by large fish, sharks, octopuses, and (unlawfully) humans.
  2. Hawksbills are slow breeders, mating only every 2 or 3 years, which is the first drawback to species survival.
  3. Having laid the resulting eggs on a beach, the female returns to the sea. The eggs hatch after a couple of months. Unless, of course, some creature – and that includes humans – has got to them first…
  4. Hatchlings are hugely vulnerable as they make their way from the nest site to the sea. However fast they scurry along, crabs and in particular flocks of gulls are faster. Also, they may have to negotiate impossible obstacles washed up onto the beach  (see below). The attrition rate of  tiny turtles at this stage is very considerable.

Hawksbill Turtle ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

SO, HUMANS ARE BASICALLY IN THE CLEAR, RIGHT?

Humans can take most of the credit for the turtles plight leading to their IUCN ‘critically endangered’ listing, in these mostly illegal ways:

  • Killing adult turtles for food or…
  • …for their beautiful shells
  • Digging up turtle nesting sites to take the eggs as food
  • Catching turtles in fishing nets as unintended but often inevitable BYCATCH
  • Providing a rich stew of plastic, styrofoam & other dietary or physical hazards in the ocean
  • Degrading or destroying the nesting sites, & indeed the reefs on which turtles depend

A hatchling tries to clamber over beach rubbish to get to the seaTurtle traps - Melissa Maura copy

A straw is extracted from a turtle’s nostril (small pics on purpose – I spared you the long video)Turtle & straw 1 (Nathan Robinson : Chris Figgener) Turtle & straw 2 (Nathan Robinson : Chris Figgener) Turtle & straw 3 (Nathan Robinson : Chris Figgener)

This poor creature was found just in timeHawkbill Turtle Plastic breathecostarica copy

Assorted plastic effects (the turtle trapped in the beach chair was off Man-o-War Cay) Sea Turtle tied up in balloon string (Blair Witherington : NOAA) copyphoto copy 7 This turtle, which was found floating in North Man-O-War Channel, died as a direct result of being entangled in human trash(in this case, a lawn chair) copy IMG_1346 copy

PLEASE CAN WE GO BACK TO HAPPY PICTURES?

Healthy hawksbills happily living the northern Bahamas reef lifeHawksbill Turtle (m) (Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba) Hawksbill Turtle (flipper damage) ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

RELATED POSTS

TURTLEY AMAZING

SEA TURTLE THREATS

BABY TURTLES WITH PHIL LANOUE

Hawksbill Turtle & photo ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Credits: Melinda Riger & Virginia Cooper of Grand Bahama Scuba for the main photos; Melissa Maura, Nathan Robinson, Friends of the Environment and other FB sharers for the small images; National Geographic for range chart and information

ATLANTIC SPADEFISH: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (28)


Atlantic Spadefish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy 2

ATLANTIC SPADEFISH: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (28)

The Atlantic spadefish looks very much like an angelfish, and indeed it is called that – or ‘white angelfish’ – in some places. Actually, it has quite a collection of colloquial names of which ‘moonfish’ is the most attractive sounding. It is not a true angelfish, however, and despite appearances it has a kinship with the weird and wonderful BATFISH.

Atlantic Spadefish ©Melinda Riger @GBS

Unlike the batfish, the spadefish is demonstrably fishlike AND edible. They can grow up to 3 foot long and have become a popular gamefish for three good reasons: they are abundant; they fight hard; and they are dinner. The perfect combination.

Atlantic Spadefish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

All photos: Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba, with thanks

Atlantic Spadefish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba