Bahama Woodstar Hummingbird, Abaco (Bruce Hallett)


Abaco is spoilt for birds. What other island in the word has its very own population of ground-nesting parrots? (Clue: none). How many others provide a secluded winter home for the rare Kirtland’s Warbler? Or a safe habitat for piping plovers – more than 300 individual birds recorded last year, nearly 4% of the total population? Or host 32 warbler species in the winter to supplement the 5 resident species? Or record a visit from a black-browed albatross? Or enjoy 4 out of 5 of the Bahamian endemic species (no longer the Bahama Oriole sadly, now confined to specific areas of Andros). 

Bahama Woodstar Hummingbird, Abaco (Bruce Hallett)

A while back I held a poll for Abaco’s favourite bird, with about 10 contenders. Some were quick to point out that their own personal favourite was not an option, but I had to take a fairly broad brush approach. On the podium, gold went to the Bahama Woodstar; silver to the parrot; and bronze to the western spindalis. I’m in a genial mood today, having caught a fair-sized wild brown trout on my third (part) day of stalking it (over 2 weeks), on the smallest fly in my box (size 18). I put it straight back of course. Respect! So in a spirit of cordiality, here are some epic shots of Abaco’s democratically elected favourite bird… at least according to the poll.


The two images above were taken by the legendary Bruce Hallett, author of the go-to field guide for the Bahamas, which no birder should be without. Many of his wonderful photos  appear in THE BIRDS OF ABACO, and he was a steady guiding hand during the preparation of the book. 

This brilliant photo of a female woodstar was taken by Tara Lavallee of Bahama Palm Shores, and for composition, clarity, colour and sheer charm it was a must for inclusion in the book.

Bahama Woodstar, Abaco (Tara Lavallee)

Another major photographic contributor was Tom Sheley. I had the pleasure of spending time on Abaco with Tom during expeditions deep into backcountry to find and photograph birds. He had two cameras, one with a long lens. The other had a very long lens. The results he obtained – showcased in the book – were outstanding. His woodstar graces the front cover.

Bahama Woodstar male, Abaco, Bahamas (Tom Sheley)Bahama Woodstar male, Abaco, Bahamas (Tom Sheley)

Tom also took a delicate little study of a female woodstar feeding, one of my favourite photosBahama Woodstar female, Abaco, Bahamas (Tom Sheley)

Credits: Bruce Hallett, Tara Lavallee, Tom Sheley




And it came to pass that on the first day of December in the Year of Our Lord 2015, the time came upon a mother hummingbird; and she laid her tiny egg in a small nest in the place that is called Man-o-war, which is to say ‘The Island of Pretty Birds”. And on the next day, she laid a second tiny egg in that nest also. For this was in the time of the first Woodstar nesting of the season.

Bahama Woodstar nest with eggs, Abaco (Charmaine Albury)

And the days passed, even as the mother hummingbird sat upon the nest whereat she had laid her eggs. And verily was she patient, for it was known to her that the eggs would not hatch until certain days were past

Bahama Woodstar nest with eggs, Abaco (Charmaine Albury)

Yet still the eggs hatched not, though their colour became paler…Bahama Woodstar nest with eggs, Abaco (Charmaine Albury)

But on the 19th day hatched the first egg; and likewise the second egg upon the 21st day. And two (mostly) naked hatchlings were made visible.Bahama Woodstar nest with hatchlings, Abaco (Charmaine Albury)

On the 25th day, which is to say the day of Christ’s Mass, the hatchlings had grown; and their raiment of feathers was coming upon them to clothe their nakednessBahama Woodstar nest with hatchlings, Abaco (Charmaine Albury)

And as they grew the chicks (for thus were they named) were snug and safe in their small nest, even as their mother and their father, who did build it together and furnish it with soft materials, had ordained


By the 31st and final day of the old year, which is to say the day before Earth’s renewal in another year, the chicks had greatly grown; and feathers were about their persons. And their appearance was of small birds which would soon fly from that place and live happily in a New Year at Man-o-warBahama Woodstar nest with chicks, Abaco (Charmaine Albury)-1

Thanks for all fabulous photos to Charmaine Albury, who is lucky enough to be a Woodstar magnet on Man-o-War Cay. With her family, she watches these events unfold every year at her house, and manages to record them without ever disturbing these wonderful little birds


Bahama Woodstar (m) Bruce Hallett, Abaco


I’ve written before about the somewhat fraught relationship between the 2 hummingbird species of Abaco, the endemic Bahama Woodstar and the resident but non-indigenous Cuban Emerald. They tend not to mix, and the Woodstars tend to fade to areas where there are no Emeralds. Both are found at Delphi, but I suspect the sugar water feeders may play a part in that. Even there, the Emeralds predominate. This is my best recent shot of a female Woodstar on the Delphi drive. I had about 30 seconds to see it, whip out the camera, remove the lens cap and fire off some shots. Then it flicked away into the coppice. All images were useless bar one, which almost worked but won’t stand close scrutiny.

Bahama Woodstar, Delphi, Abaco

Man-o-War Cay may be quite small, but it seems to be blessed with plenty of Woodstars. They are often quite tame and Charmaine Albury has them nesting round her house annually. I posted about her baby Woodstars from last year HERE. This year they have returned, making their tiny cup nests rather precariously amid the domestic wiring. Here are a few of  Charmaine’s nest photos (for which thanks!) for this season.

A female Woodstar on the nest. They lay 2 eggs, which are incubated for around 2 weeksBahama Woodstar, Man-o-War Cay Abaco (Charmaine Albury)

A fledgling takes flight for the first time, leaving more room for the remaining chick. Note the stumpy little tailBahama Woodstar, Man-o-War Cay Abaco (Charmaine Albury)

Two eggs that seem far too big for such a tiny nestBahama Woodstar, Man-o-War Cay Abaco (Charmaine Albury)

Within the last couple of days, the first egg hatched. This hatchling is a few hours old at mostBahama Woodstar, Man-o-War Cay Abaco (Charmaine Albury)

photo copyphoto

Credits: Header pic of male BAWO Bruce Hallett; RH (Delphi); Charmaine Albury (nests); BNT info sheet


20130106_Bahamas-Great Abaco_4846_Bahama Yellowthroat_Gerlinde Taurer copy

Bahama Yellowthroat (Gerlinde Taurer)


The Caribbean Endemic Bird Festival is underway. You can find out more on the CARIBBEAN BIRDS FESTIVALS Facebook page. Abaco is fortunate to be home to 4 of the 5 endemic Bahamas species. The fifth, the beautiful BAHAMA ORIOLE Icterus northropi, was found on both Abaco and Andros until the 1990s, when it sadly became extirpated from Abaco. Now found only on Andros, there are thought to be fewer than 300 Orioles left – a barely sustainable number. The species is unsurprisingly IUCN listed as critically endangered. Here’s a picture of one as a reminder of what Abaco is now missing…

Bahama_Oriole (Wiki)

Bahama Oriole


Abaco’s four endemic species are the tiny Bahama Woodstar hummingbird, the Bahama Yellowthroat, the Bahama Warbler (since 2011), and the Bahama Swallow. All are of course permanent breeding residents on Abaco and its outer Cays. None is exclusive to Abaco; all are relatively plentiful. The Woodstar is perhaps the hardest to find, not least because it competes territorially with the Cuban Emerald hummingbird. Even Woodstars can be found easily in some areas – Man-o-War Cay is a good place for them, for example. Here are some striking images of these four endemic bird species taken from the archives for “The Birds of Abaco” published last month. 

BAHAMA WOODSTAR Calliphlox evelynae 

Bahama Woodstar male 3.1.Abaco Bahamas.2.12.Tom Sheley copy

Bahama Woodstar (m) (Tom Sheley)

Bahama Woodstar (f) TL IMG_3213 2

Bahama Woodstar (f) Tara Lavallee

BAHAMA YELLOWTHROAT Geothlypis rostrata

Bahama Yellowthroat vocalizing.Abaco Bahamas.Tom Sheley

Bahama Yellowthroat (Tom Sheley)

Bahama Yellowthroat (M) BH IMG_0675 copy

Bahama Yellowthroat (Bruce Hallett)

BAHAMA WARBLER Setophaga flavescens

Bahama Warbler BH IMG_8398 copy - Version 2

Bahama Warbler (Bruce Hallett)

Bahama Warbler WB P1001012 copy

Bahama Warbler (Woody Bracey)

BAHAMA SWALLOW Tachycineta cyaneoviridis

Bahama Swallow CN

Bahama Swallow (Craig Nash)

bahama-swallow EG  copy

Bahama Swallow (Erik Gauger)

“The Delphi Club Guide to the Birds of Abaco”  was published as limited edition of 500 and has only been for sale for 8 weeks or so exclusively through the Delphi Club. Yesterday, we passed a happy milestone in that short time as the 250th copy was sold. Complimentary copies have also been donated to every school and relevant education department on Abaco to tie in with the excellent policy of teaching children from an early age the value of the natural world around them, the importance of its ecology, and the need for its conservation. The cover bird for the book was easy to choose – it just had to be a male Woodstar in all his glory with his splendid purple ‘gorget’. 

Bahama Woodstar (m) BH IMG_0917 copy

Bahama Woodstar (m) Bruce Hallett


Image credits as shown; otherwise, ‘cover bird’ by Tom Sheley, Bahama Oriole from Wiki and CEBF flyer from the Bahamas National Trust




A: A BABY BAHAMA WOODSTAR HUMMINGBIRD ON ABACO1377387_10201470915708562_1875646596_n

Charmaine Albury from Man-o-War Cay, Abaco, has taken some fabulous photographs of a nesting Bahama Woodstar Hummingbird at her home. With her kind permission, I am delighted to display a selection of them below. The adult is a female, and lacks the striking purple gorget of the male. The baby’s plumage is… spiky!  The cup nest is beautifully constructed, made from plant down, bark and cobwebs, balanced in a string of lights.  The size of the bulbs give a very clear idea how tiny these sweet little birds are. These are photos to be viewed in wonderment and awwwwwwwwww….


This hummingbird species nests all year round. The female lays 2 elliptical white eggs, which she incubates for 15–18 days.  Not only is the baby in these pictures in a very small nest, it is sharing it with an unhatched and presumably sterile egg. Then again, two babies would be even more of a squash… 1381404_10201471034351528_1693570080_n541844_10201470918508632_1470337409_n 1376617_10201470928108872_1146646017_n 1377385_10201470917748613_443444189_n 1382262_10201470921668711_411658918_n

The Bahama Woodstar Calliphlox evelynae is endemic to the Bahamas, found only on there and as an occasional vagrant in south east Florida. On Abaco, it is one of four endemic species found on the island – the others are the Bahama Swallow, the Bahama Warbler and the Bahama Yellowthroat. Together with the unique ground-nesting ABACO PARROT, these are among the most special birds of Abaco.

Photo Credits: All images © Charmaine Albury