ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (52)


ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (52)

I last featured the cheerfully-coloured Rock Beauty Holacanthus tricolor 2 or 3 years back. Time has passed; new photos exist; new people have signed up to follow this eclectic menagerie (thank you both). Time for another look at these beauties, which also happen to be cuties.

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Look at the little guy above –  posing for Pixar, adorably hoping to star in Part 3 of the Nemo / Dory trilogy

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

These fish are a small species of angelfish. Seen swimming around the reefs they are unmistakeable, not least because of their bright yellow hi-viz jackets, remarkable blue eyeliner and blue-black lippy. 

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Rock Beauties look like prime candidates for anyone’s aquarium, but their picky dietary requirements and tendency for aggression make them unsuitable.

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

They are highly specialised feeders, needing marine sponge in their daily diet. They are also prone to chase their tank-mates and nip them. On balance, they look more fetching nosing about the coral anyway.

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

WHAT DO JUVENILES LOOK LIKE?

Juvenile rock beauties are cute mini-versions of the adults, only more yellow and with yellow lips. In some development stages, they have a smart blue circle around the dark patch on their sides (bottom image).

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Rock Beauty, Bahamas (Living Oceans Foundation))

NOTE Rock Beauties have no known kinship with Chrissie, Debbie, Lita, Joan, Jennifer, Stevie, Madge and the rest of the accredited ‘Rock Beauties aka Chicks’ 

NOT A TRUE ‘ROCK BEAUTY’ (no offence, Lita)

A TRUE ROCK BEAUTY

Credits: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba; WP

TUNICATES: SESSILE ASEXUAL SEA-SQUIRTS


Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

TUNICATES: SESSILE ASEXUAL SEA-SQUIRTS

Painted Tunicates Clavina picta are one of several species of tunicate ‘sea-squirts’ found in Bahamas and Caribbean waters. These creatures with their translucent bodies are usually found clustered together, sometimes in very large groups. One reason for this is that they are ‘sessile’, unable to move from where they have taken root on the coral.

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

HOW DO THEY FEED?

Like most if not all sea squirts, tunicates are filter feeders. Their structure is simple, and enables them to draw water into their body cavity. In fact they have 2 openings, an ‘oral siphon’ to suck in water; and an exit called the ‘atrial siphon’. Tiny particles of food (e.g. plankton) are separated internally from the water by means of a tiny organ (‘branchial basket’) like a sieve. The water is then expelled. 

Diagram of adult solitary tunicate

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

WHAT DOES ‘TUNICATE’ MEAN?

The creatures have a flexible protective covering referred to as a ‘tunic’. ‘Coveringates’ didn’t really work as a name, so the tunic aspect became the name. 

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

IF THEY CAN’T MOVE, HOW DO THEY… (erm…) REPRODUCE?

Tunicates are broadly speaking asexual. Once a colony has become attached to corals or sponges, they are able to ‘bud’, ie to produce clones to join the colony. These are like tiny tadpoles and their first task is to settle and attach themselves to something suitable – for life – using a sticky secretion. Apparently they do this head first, then in effect turn themselves upside down as they develop the internal bits and pieces they need for adult life. The colony grows because (*speculation alert*) the most obvious place for the ‘tadpoles’ to take root is presumably in the immediate area they were formed.

 

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

APART FROM BEING STATIONARY & ASEXUAL, ANY OTHER ATTRIBUTES?

Some types of tunicate contain particular chemicals that are related to those used to combat some forms of cancer and a number of viruses. So they have a potential use in medical treatments, in particular in helping to repair tissue damage.

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Credits: all fabulous close-up shots by Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba; diagram from depts.washington.edu; magpie pickings with a particular mention of an article by Sara MacSorley

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

 

‘REEF ENCOUNTER’ 1: GRAY ANGELFISH


Gray Angelfish 9with four-eyed butterflyfish), Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

‘REEF ENCOUNTER’ 1: GRAY ANGELFISH

Today I learn from a cheery message from WordPress that my illustrated ramblings have been going on for exactly X years, where X is greater than 5 but less than 10. Time to start a new theme: channelling my inner Noel Coward, I am introducing a new mainly pictorial series provisionally called ‘Reef Encounter’. All the awesome beauty of reef life will be here.

Gray Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

In the past I have posted about GRAY ANGELFISH, one of three kinds of angelfish found in the northern Bahamas. Today, I am featuring some more recent images of these pretty creatures. Note in particular the striking shape and colour of their mouths, the blue being found also on the fin edges at the back.

Gray Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)Gray Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

On this otherwise gray fish, you’ll also find touches of yellow on the face and the edges of the front fins. In the header image there’s another little fish in the bottom right corner. Not a baby angelfish, but a FOUR-EYED BUTTERFLYFISH – a species that will feature in own right in due course

Gray Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

All fabulous photos by Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

Gray Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) 17: YELLOWHEAD JAWFISH


Yellowhead Jawfish (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) 17: YELLOWHEAD JAWFISH

It’s been a little time since I added to the WTF? series, in which some of the more outlandish reef denizens come under close scrutiny. Jawfishes (Opistognathidae) come into this category, not least because of their interesting ways with their eggs. Also, they tend to stick upright out of the substrate, which is not especially fishy behaviour.

Yellowhead Jawfish (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

More than 50 species of jawfish are found around the world. In the Bahamas, you are most likely to encounter the Yellowhead (or Yellow-headed) variety. And if you think they look slightly… primitive, that’s because they are. In fact, their forebears (forefishes?) originated in prehistoric times, specifically the Miocene era (a lot of million years ago, I didn’t count exactly).

Yellowhead Jawfish (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

These rather extraordinary little fish superficially resemble certain types of BLENNY. Their modus operandi is to burrow down into sandy, gravelly or other loose substrate. They do so by cramming their mouths with sand and spitting it out to one side. By this means they form a tunnel of sorts in which they can live, and from which they can emerge, or half-emerge and take a look around them. As they do so, they hoover up passing food, mostly plankton and suchlike.

Yellowhead Jawfish (Virginia Cooper / Grand Bahama Scuba)

If something looks threatening while they are feeding or having a look around, they can simply duck down into their burrow for safety. They guard their patch against rivals, and behave ‘territorially’ in the jawfish community. One method is to ingest and and then eject sand or gravel at a would-be intruder.

Yellowhead Jawfish (Michael Wolf Wiki))

YES, BUT WHERE IS THE REAL ‘WTF?’ FACTOR HERE?

Good question. With a good and original answer. These little creatures are so-called MOUTHBROODERS‘, meaning that they carry their eggs in their mouths. Depending on the species, females, males or even both parents (don’t try this at home) will do this at or after fertilisation. In effect the eggs are safely incubated until they hatch as fry. Then they are on their own.

Yellowhead Jawfish (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

ARE THERE ANY DRAWBACKS TO THIS UNUSUAL GESTATION METHOD?

Apart from accidentally swallowing the occasional potential junior, the eggs need aeration from time to time. This is achieved by expelling the eggs from the mouth, and quickly sucking them back in again. Try this very short video to see this rather improbable behaviour in action. It’s only 8 seconds blink and you’ll miss the action. The eggs hatch into fry in 8 – 10 days, after which both parents can relax. Until the next time.

Yellowhead Jawfish (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)
Photo Credits: all images from Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba except (4) Virginia Cooper / GBS; (5) Michael Wolf / Wikimedia; video, Alan Keller. Research: magpie picking, not excluding yet not limited to Wiki…
Yellowhead Jawfish (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (51): BLACK MARGATE


Black Margate (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (51): BLACK MARGATE

The black margate (Anisotremus surinamensis) is a type of GRUNT (see also PORKFISH) found among the reefs and rocks of (mostly) the western Atlantic seaboard, from Florida as far south as Brazil. They are relatively ‘shallow’ fish and they prefer to be close to place where they can live safely and avoid the predators that lurk in open or deep water.

Black Margate (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Margates are not usually very large, mostly growing to between 18″ and 30″, although they can grow larger. Thanks to the awesomeness of Wiki and other reliable sources I can confidently report that “…the maximum recorded weight for this species is 5.8 kg (13 lb)“.

Black Margate (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

MAY WE HAVE THE TRADITIONAL 10 FUN FACTS PLEASE?

  • Local names include burriquete (Sp) and zapatero or burros (Mex)
  • There are 10 margate species world wide, including 2 Pacific versions
  • Their heads slope down to a notably thick lipped mouth in which they have strong teeth
  • Margates have erectile spines, presumably for defence (I’ve not tested that)
  • They like to shelter in caves and crevices, on ledges, and in wrecks (see pics)
  • Margates are ‘solitary fish’ or hang out in small groups
  • They are night-feeders on a diet of crustaceans, mollusks, smaller fish & urchins
  • Sadly for them, they are valued by commercial fisheries using baited drift fishing…
  • …and also targeted by anglers during the spawning season when they shoal (?unfair)
  • … and also caught as aquarium fish, adding to stock depletion

Black Margate (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

RELATED SPECIES

PORKFISH

Credits: all photos, Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba; research from magpie pickings and in particular the interesting mexicanfish.com

Black Margate (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

HAWKSBILL TURTLES: ENJOY THEM WHILE YOU CAN


Hawksbill Turtle Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

HAWKSBILL TURTLES: ENJOY THEM WHILE YOU CAN

Pliny the Elder (CE 23–79) was one of the earliest naturalists, besides being a philosopher, author and military commander. He wrote Naturalis Historia (Natural History), a wide-ranging work that became a model for later scholarly works, including forms of Encyclopedia. And, as he so nearly wrote, ‘si non amas testudines, vacua anima tua est’ (he that loves not sea turtles, has an empty mind)*

Hawksbill turtle grazing while a French angelfish looks onHawksbill Turtle with French Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

There can be few better ways to start the New Year than with some gorgeous Hawksbill Turtles  Eretmochelys imbricata, plus a sprinkling of turtle facts to give 2019 a good push into orbit. Fortunately still available in Bahamas waters, the continued existence of Hawksbills is under serious threat. Make the most of your opportunities.

Hawksbill Turtle Bahamas (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

  • Guesstimates of the world Hawksbill Turtle population suggest that there are 5 main groups in the oceans, with few enough individuals – especially breeding females – to warrant an IUCN listing of the species as critically endangered
  • I doubt that many will forget that the next IUCN category is… extinct (≠ ‘fun fact’)
  • The largest Hawksbill colony in the world nests on an island in Queensland Australia
  • Turtles leave the sea to lay eggs in a hole dug on the beach, before returning to the sea.
  • The eggs hatch after c60 days… the turtlings emerge and are then on their own
  • Hawksbills are omnivorous, mainly eating sponges (& immune from sponge toxins)
  • They also eat sea anemones, mollusks, and jellyfish
  • Their grazing lifestyle is an important component of a healthy coral reef ecosystem

Hawksbill Turtle Bahamas (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

  • Though their shells are hard, Hawksbills are prey for sharks, crocodiles, octopuses and the biggest predator of all, humans“.
  • Despite international Hawkbill protection and conservation measures, they continue to be illegally hunted – including, in some places, for food.
  • Their lovely shells – tortoiseshell – are illegally traded for use for ornaments and jewellery
  • Japan makes its own rules (as with whales) for traditional & no doubt research purposes
  • ‘Tortoiseshell’ is the illegal item most frequently confiscated by custom officials
  • Reef and beach degradation, development, light pollution (confuses the baby turtles trying to paddle to the sea), ocean pollution / marine debris, and illegal practices are among the greatest dangers to the survival of the species. All are caused, directly or indirectly, by you and indeed me

Hawksbill T ©Melinda Riger + G B Scuba copy.jpg

Credits: wonderful photos by Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba (1, 2, 5) & Adam Rees / Scuba Works (3, 4, 6); Widecast; Nature Conservancy; OneKind Planet

Hawksbill Turtle Bahamas (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

* Do not believe this – I invented it. The quote that props up the pretentious stuff, that is – all the rest is true…

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (50): TOBACCO BASSLET


Tobacco Basslet (Serranus tabacarius) Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (50): TOBACCO BASSLET

Welcome to #50 in the Bahamas Reef Fish series. I chose this fish to honour the landmark before thinking about its features. Grumpy. Also, associated with a narcotic and dangerous drug. And a fish one probably wouldn’t bother to smoke (even if one could get it to light underwater). In the Bahamas you’ll find these little fish around the coral reefs where they play their part as reef denizens, which includes being prey to larger species. If one looks them up online, however, the overwhelming impression from the websites and images available is that they exist largely for the benefit of the aquarium industry.

Tobacco Basslet (Serranus tabacarius) Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Tobacco basslets (Serranus tabacarius) – more commonly just called tobacco fish or tobaccofish – are related to the HARLEQUIN BASS(LET), a species that was most unfairly included as #9 in my parallel WTF? series among all the seriously weird sea creatures that feature in that category. A wrong I must right one day.

Tobacco Basslet (Serranus tabacarius) Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Tobacco fish are considered to be hardy, unaggressive (except towards the tiny fishes and crustaceans they feed on) but apparently they need quite a large tank to hold them. The ocean might be suitably large for the purpose. Especially as it seems that in an aquarium there needs to be a cover on top: “these fish are expert jumpers…“, as one source puts it…

BESIDES THE BAHAMAS & AQUARIUMS WHERE ELSE DO THEY LIVE?

TOBACCO BASSLET RANGE MAP

APART FROM THE HIGH JUMP THING, ANY OTHER TRICKS?

Yes indeed. The Tobacco Basslet is hermaphroditic, like all other members of its genus.

DON’T LEAVE IT AT THAT… HOW DO THEY, YOU KNOW?

I didn’t want you to ask. All their FB pages say “It’s complicated“, but here’s a rough idea…

  • All individuals start life as simultaneous hermaphrodites (with sex organs of both sexes)
  • The largest fish lose their female functions and become active sperm-producing males
  • Each male leads a group of hermaphrodites and protects them from other males 
  • This gives them exclusive rights to the female parts of members of their ‘harem’
  • Sometimes hermies may use their male bits to join in & release sperm – ‘streaking’
  • There are rarer mating strategies… Oh heck, please look at the abstract of a scientific paper for details. I had to! And all because you, gentle reader, asked that question.

With some relief, here is very short video. It probably doesn’t accurately show how Tobacco fish might behave on a Bahamian reef. In captivity, from the look of it, they get pushed around by bigger fish. But maybe, if their co-residents are carefully selected, the bonus is that they don’t risk getting eaten.

OPTIONAL MUSICAL INTERLUDE

There are no songs ever that mention tobacco fish or tobacco basslets (though lots involve bass). And more oddly, apart from a couple of old blues songs the only truly mainstream song about tobacco by name (as opposed to content) is Tobacco Road, a song as frequently and thoroughly covered as an aquarium tank containing jumpy tobacco fish.

Rare photos from the actual sea captured by Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba; Science Direct plus magpie pickings; Captive Aquatic Ecosytems (video)

I didn’t enjoy this article about me very much. I am NOT grumpy.Tobacco Basslet (Serranus tabacarius) Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)