GRAYSBY (GROUPER): BAHAMAS REEF FISH (42)


Graysby (grouper) - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

GRAYSBY (GROUPER): BAHAMAS REEF FISH (42)

The Graysby Cephalopholis cruentata is a small, spotty grouper, which grows to a maximum of around 16 inches. These rather unassuming and solitary fish have a preference for coral reefs, where they can blend in with their surroundings on ledges and in caves and crevices during the day. At night, they become active – that’s when they feed on feed on small fish, crabs and shrimps. 

Graysby (grouper) - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama ScubaGraysby (grouper) - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

The graysby has variable colouring in a range from light brown to pale gray, with all-over spots that may be red, orange or brownish. Often, they have 3 to 5 contrasting spots on their backs, along the base of the dorsal fin, as below:

Graysby (grouper) - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama ScubaGraysby (grouper) - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

The long erectile dorsal fin comprises both spines and ‘rays’ – spines at the front, rays at the back. Like this:

The spots of a graysby can change in colour (at least to a limited extent), becoming either paler or darker. I imagine this is a protective feature to enable the fish to blend in more easily with its reef surroundings. 

Graysby (grouper) - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

Signalling to turn right…

I wondered if they are edible. I believe so – but then I also read that the larger adults carry the risk of ciguatera and raised mercury levels. So I’ll give it a miss thanks.

Photo & other credits: all photographs by Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba; aqua.org; SAMFC (drawing)

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) 14: ARROW CRABS


Arrow Crab (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) 14: ARROW CRABS

It’s been a while since the last in the WTF? series, which is dedicated to the wilder, less conventionally fish-shaped side of reef life – those creatures that you may come across, blink into your face-mask,  and silently mouth the words ‘What’s That Fish?’ (that’s what it looks like you are saying, anyway).

Arrow Crab (Adam Rees)

Let’s meet some Arrow Crabs Stenorhynchus seticornis, one of the very few creatures surely to have a triangular body plus a huge pointy nose (rostrum), supported on long skinny legs. To which add, they wear tiny blue gloves on their two front claws.

Arrow Crab (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

These crabs are coral reef dwellers and mostly stay concealed during the day. Their body is protected by a carapace, and the rostrum has serrated edges like a tiny rasp or file. I haven’t found a definitive reason for this gadget, but I suspect it is more for probing than for piercing or fighting.

Arrow Crab (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

There’s a considerable colour variation among these crabs, as these images show. The body may even have blue iridescent lines (#2, above). And those claws may be any of 50 shades of blue…

Arrow Crab (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Arrow crabs are most active at night. They eat feather-duster worms (illus.) and similar invertebrates such as bristle worms.

Feather-duster worm (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

Arrow Crab Meal

Like certain types of shrimp, they also have a symbiotic relationship with anemones, whereby they make use of an anemone to benefit from the food it captures – and possibly for cover too. They are protected from anemone stings, whereas some of their predators are not.

This was the place where I was going to tell you about the arrow crab’s private life, but, well… “it’s complicated”. Briefly it is: male passes sperm-filled capsule to female; she uses it in some way whereby it fertilises her eggs; she then ‘broods’ the eggs in one of her ‘swimming legs’; the eggs hatch into larvae and swim off to eat plankton; each one then grows & moults, repeating the process until it has reached adult form. On balance, humans have arguably perfected a preferable method.

Arrow Crab (Nick Hobgood / Wiki)

Arrow Crabs are apparently popular aquarium creatures, although they sound to me rather a disagreeable challenge. They can move quickly on those long legs, and it seems as if they inclined to be aggressive to other inhabitants of the tank. As far as I can make out, it’s best not to put 2 of them together: they certainly won’t be doing the sperm capsule thing described earlier… 

Arrow Crab (Adam Rees)

Master of Disguise

Photo credits: Melinda Riger / G B Scuba (1, 3, 4, 5, 6); Adam Rees / Scuba Works (2, 8, 9); Nick Hopgood,Wiki (7); Chuck Elliot – video

Arrow Crab (Adam Rees)

SOUTHERN STINGRAYS: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (41)


Southern Stingrays, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

SOUTHERN STINGRAYS: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (41)

Anyone who has scuba-dived or snorkelled around the bright coral reefs of the Bahamas, or hunted bonefish out on the Abaco Marls will have come across Southern Stingrays Dasyatis americana. And there are certain places (eg Manjack Cay) where you can actually feed them – and not come to any harm

Southern Stingrays, Manjack Cay, Bahamas (Samantha Regan)

FEED THEM? AREN’T THESE GUYS LETHALLY DANGEROUS CREATURES?

Southern Stingrays, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

The name that always comes to mind in connection with stingrays is poor Steve Irwin, the charismatic Australian wildlife expert who was tragically ‘stung’ over his heart as he swam close over a ray while filming underwater. But this was, it would appear, a dreadful combination of circumstances with a terrible outcome.

Southern Stingrays, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

The ray’s stinger is in fact an erectile venomous barbed spine near the base of the tail and not on the end of it (as one might expect). But these creatures are not out to harm you – though of course when you are in their environment you should accord them the respect that they merit.

Southern Stingray (Tomas Willams, wiki)

If you are walking / wading in the water, avoid the risk of accidentally treading on a ray. Best to shuffle your feet forward in the sand; if there’s a half-concealed ray feeding or resting on the bottom nearby, it will swim away peacefully. I took the photo below while bonefishing on the Marls; the ray directly ahead slowly makes off as the skiff drifts closer. The next one is of a ray with its young – completely aware of us as we glide past to one side, but not especially bothered.

Southern Stingrays, Bahamas  (Keith Salvesen)Southern Stingray adult and young, Bahamas  (Keith Salvesen)

If you are swimming, snorkelling or diving, don’t get too close – especially by swimming directly over a ray (apparently Steve Irwin’s mistake, so that he was struck right in the chest by the stinger when the ray reacted).

Southern Stingrays, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Enough of the potential dangers. The southern stingray is a magnificent creature, as Melinda’s wonderful photographs show. She spends half her life underwater and I’m not aware that she has had a problem with a ray. 

Southern Stingrays, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Like many larger sea creatures, stingrays need help with their personal care – the removal of parasites, dead skin and so forth. And so they make use of the services offered by small fish like gobies, wrasses and shrimps at a CLEANING STATION. Here are 2 photos of rays doing just that. You can see the tiny fish by the reef, going about their work. There’s a mutual benefit in this symbiotic relationship, in which it is understood that the cleaners are unharmed. Indeed, they will often enter the mouths and gills of a fish to clean… including the teeth. So there’s dental hygiene on offer too…

Southern Stingrays, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Southern Stingrays, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

RELATED POSTS

YELLOW STINGRAY

GRACE WITH ATTITUDE

TAKEN TO THE CLEANERS

Photo Credits: Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba, except for the feeding photo (cheers, Samantha Regan), the ‘specimen’ from Tomas Willems (Wiki) and my two noted above

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (40): FOUR-EYED BUTTERFLYFISH


Four-eyed Butterflyfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (40): FOUR-EYED BUTTERFLYFISH

Four-eyed (or foureye) butterflyfish (Chaetodon capistratus) are small, somewhat circular fish with an endearingly pointy little snout. They are one of several butterflyfish species found in Bahamian waters. On their sides are smart ‘go-faster’ chevrons, with the unmistakeable white-circled black ‘eye’ at the back. The real eyes, in the conventional position, are small and far less noticeable, not least because of the stripe that passes right through them.

Four-eyed Butterflyfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

WHY THIS EXOTIC PATTERNING?

This type of misleading pattern is not uncommon in fishes and indeed in terrestrial creatures. It creates confusion in predators – and when this little fish is threatened it swims away with its large ‘eye’ prominent to the pursuer.  It acts as a warning and an off-putting feature that suggests ‘don’t eat me’. If you half-close your eyes and look at the image below, the large eyes stand out against the reef background and hint at a creature not to be tangled with. Why reef predators don’t rumble this ruse within minutes, I have no idea.

Four-eyed Butterflyfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

WHAT IF THE RUSE FAILS?

Foureyes are very agile swimmers and can take advantage of narrow gaps and clefts in the reef  by swimming sideways or even upside-down to manoeuvre away from danger and to safety where the predator cannot reach it. 

Four-eyed Butterflyfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

AND IF THAT DOESN’T WORK?

If the foureye is in deep trouble, it has an alternative cunning plan. It will turn and face the pursuer, head down and dorsal spines erect. This posture says both ‘I’m very spiny – watch out’ and ‘I’m coming atcher’. 

Four-eyed Butterflyfish, Bahamas (Lazlo Ilyes wiki)

AND IF THAT DOESN’T WORK? I’M WORRIED FOR IT NOW…

Curtains. It’s lunchtime, I’m afraid.

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Foureyes are far from the only reef dwellers that have predator-confusing markings. In the image below, the foureye at the top is swimming with a larger BUTTER HAMLET, a species that also relies on an abnormal spot pattern to put off predators. This is a great capture, and it also illustrates how the smaller reef fishes can hang out together amicably.

Four-eyed Butterflyfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

RELATED POSTS

REEF BUTTERFLYFISH 

SPOTFIN BUTTERFLYFISH

LONGSNOUT BUTTERFLYFISH

Image Credits: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba; 5, Lazlo Ilyes

 

 

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (39): YELLOWTAIL DAMSELFISH


Yellowtail Damselfish (©Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

BAHAMAS REEF FISH (39): YELLOWTAIL DAMSELFISH

Yellowtails are just one of several damselfish species in Bahamas waters. These small fish are conspicuous not just for the bright tails that give them their name. More striking if anything – especially if seen underwater in sunlight against the coral – are the electric blue spots visible in both adults and juveniles.

Yellowtail Damselfish (©Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

The body of adults is dark blue to brownish to almost black 

The body of juveniles is blue

Yellowtails are a common and widespread variety of damselfish. They have a limited ability to change colour according to their surroundings, but with their bright tails and luminous blue flecks, it’s hard to see how they can look, to a predator, anything other than a tasty snack.

I have enjoyed seeing these little fish at Fowl Cay Marine Preserve, Abaco. The reef there makes for easy and rewarding snorkelling, with a wide variety of small and medium-size reef fishes to be seen. It’s an expedition I would definitely recommend to anyone wanting to see a healthy and active reef in a completely natural protected area.

I found that a video I took with a tiny camera was sadly of use only to myself. No one else would be able to make anything out due to the marked camera shake. Novices, huh? You are spared that: here’s a brief example of yellowtails swimming instead, showing the difference between juveniles and adults.

Credits: all photos, Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba; video from Desert Diving

QUEEN TRIGGERFISH AND GOOD RIDDANCE TO MARIA


Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

QUEEN TRIGGERFISH AND GOOD RIDDANCE TO MARIA

I can think of no sensible connection between the colourful yet undoubtedly strange and grumpy-looking looking queen triggerfish Balistes vetula, and a hurricane. However, Hurricanes Irma and Maria have been rightly dominating the news and everyone’s thoughts for nearly 3 weeks now. And most of the recent posts from Rolling Harbour, for that matter. It’s not been a great time for looking at the birds, beasts and fishes. So, as Maria drifts eastwards and away from the Bahamas into the open ocean, it’s time for a splash of colour – and a fish I have not featured before. 

Hurricane Maria tracking at 11.00 EST on Sept 22

Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

The queen triggerfish, sometimes known as an Old Wife, is an Atlantic reef fish. This species is sometime fished for as game, and I know that a few have been taken from off the rocks at the south end of Delphi beach over the years – though perhaps not exactly on purpose.

Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Mark Peter, Wiki)Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

This fish typically is coloured with shades of  blue, purple, turquoise and green with a yellowish throat, with pale blue lines fins on head and fins. It’s minor superpower is to be able to change its coloration to some extent to match its reef surroundings and assist camouflage. Its favourite food is the sea urchin.

Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Clark Anderson / Aqua-images)

Let’s hope this is the last post to feature anything about hurricanes for a good long time, as we think of all those still struggling to make sense of the terrible destruction they have recently experienced – in some places, twice over.

Credits: Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba; Mark Peter, Wiki; Clark Anderson / Aqua-images

CLEANING UP IN THE BAHAMAS: PEDERSON SHRIMPS


Pederson's Cleaning Shrimp, Bahamas (Melinda Riger, GB Scuba)

CLEANING UP IN THE BAHAMAS: PEDERSON SHRIMPS 

Pederson’s Shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni (also known locally as Peterson’s shrimps), are one of several species of cleaner shrimp found in The Bahamas and more generally in the Caribbean seas. The species was named in 1958 by a multifaceted medico-oceanologist-zoologist Fenner A. Chace. He seems to have specialised in shrimps, finding distinct and differing species and naming them (not unreasonably) after himself (chacei);or colleagues and people he knew / admired; and in one case his wife. Mr Pederson was among them.

Pederson's Cleaning Shrimp, Bahamas (Melinda Riger, GB Scuba)

This tiny transparent creature with its vivid blue / purple markings and straggling pale antennae is unmistakeable, and helpfully cannot be confused with any other locally found shrimp species. Here’s an idea of its size, compared with a human finger and a blue parrotfish.

Pederson's Cleaning Shrimp, Bahamas (Melinda Riger, GB Scuba)

WHERE DO THESE SHRIMPS LIVE?

Their preferred home is… and it’s certainly a left field choice among sea creatures… in amongst the stinging tentacles of certain sea anemones. Not only do they not get stung, but of course they are well-protected by the defensive pain that their hosts can inflict. They are usually found singly or in pairs, but sometimes a whole colony may inhabit the same anemone.

SO EXPLAIN HOW THEY DON’T GET STUNG

Ok. The shrimps gradually build up a kind of resistance by pressing their bodies and antennae against the tentacles of the host anemone for increasing lengths of time, until they become immune. It’s like one of those kids’ electric buzzer / rheostat machines. Or a TENS machine (for those who know about backache).

 IS THERE A DOWNSIDE TO ALL THIS?

Yes indeed. If a shrimp moves away from its host for a few days, it has to start the process of immunisation all over again. So presumably they tend to stay home-lovin’.

Home sweet home for the Pederson shrimpsPederson's Cleaning Shrimp, Bahamas (Melinda Riger, GB Scuba)

SOMETHING ABOUT THE CLEANING, PLEASE

These shrimps offer ‘cleaning services’ to passing fish. When on duty, as it were, they wave their antennae vigorously to attract attention. A fish being cleaned will remain stationary and passive while external parasites and dead skin are removed. Many fish will open their mouths and gill covers for internal cleaning, with the tacit agreement that the cleaner will not become a snack. Shrimps often work in conjunction with small cleaner fish such as some species of goby and wrasse – see the links below for more on this topic, with copious images…

Pederson's Cleaning Shrimp, Bahamas (Melinda Riger, GB Scuba)

RELATED POSTS

CLEANING STATIONS

CLEANER FISH

Credits: all photos by Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba