EEL-SPOTTING: FORAYS WITH MORAYS (7)


Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

EEL-SPOTTING: FORAYS WITH MORAYS (7)

MORAY EELS are plentiful around the reefs of the Bahamas. Some species, anyway. The ones you are most likely to encounter are green morays, and the spotted morays shown here. Less common are chain and golden-tail morays and, rarer still I suspect (because I have only  one image in the archive…) is the ‘purple-mouth’.  

Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

Despite their moderately intimidating appearance – an adult may grow to 1.5 meters or more, with sharp teeth at the front end – these eels are not especially aggressive unless provoked. Best to assume that all humans will behave respectfully around them and remember that people are the intruders in the eels’ domain. 

Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

Morays tend to be loners of the reefs, but they do gather in groups from time to time. And as shown below, they will also hunt with other species, for example this tiger grouper.

Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

Sharp-eyed, sharp-toothed

Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

Looks friendly enough…

Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

A long and surprisingly large body, generally concealed in the crevices of the reef

Spotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

Credits: Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

Lurkin’ GoodSpotted Moray Eel, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

INTERNATIONAL SHARK WEEK? IT’S SO OVER… EXCEPT HERE


Sharks in Bahamas - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

INTERNATIONAL SHARK WEEK? IT’S SO OVER… EXCEPT HERE

There’s never a day without a ‘Day’, nor a week without a ‘Week’. Almost all creatures under the sun are celebrated in some regular calendar-based time-frame. With the exception of No-see-ums: I’ve checked – there is no national or international Ceratopogonidae Day in any online calendar. 

Sharks in Bahamas - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

By a mere 2 days, I have missed Shark Week, a happening tied in with the Discovery Channel, and heralded by an amusing trailer that features no actual sharks… So, belatedly, here are some cool shark photos to enjoy, in case you didn’t get enough of them last week, or (like me) had other fish to fry.

Sharks in Bahamas - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba“I’m so glad we agreed to watch each other’s backs…”

Sharks in Bahamas - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

 Meet Nurse Betty, as she is known to diversSharks in Bahamas - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

MANGROVES: THE SHARK NURSERY

As all children are taught and some adults know, the mangroves that grow in the shallow waters around the islands of the Bahamas are of enormous ecological significance. This isn’t the place to expand on that now, but it is worth mentioning that the mangrove swamps are the nurseries of young sharks (‘pups’) until, as juveniles, they are old enough to leave the safely of their home for deeper waters. Check out the short video below.

Sharks in Bimini Bahamas - biminis-marine-protected-areaSharks in Bimini Bahamas - biminis-marine-protected-area

Spot the REMORA hitching a ride on this shark’s backSharks in Bahamas - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

Nurse shark – note the twin barbels (cf recent Goatfish article)Sharks in Bahamas - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

Sharks in Bahamas - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

HAMMERHEADS FROM BIMINI Sharks in Bimini Bahamas - Grant Johnson / 60 Pound Bullet   Sharks in Bimini Bahamas - Grant Johnson / 60 Pound Bullet

These wonderful photos were all taken in Bahamian waters. Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba is, as ever, the star snap-getter of sharks (and indeed all other marine creatures). Special thanks are also due to Grant Johnson / 60poundbullet and Neal Watson / Bimini Scuba Center for occasional use permission of photos – especially of hammerheads – that are, well, eye-popping. Video from ‘ZeroEye’

Sharks in Bimini Bahamas - Grant Johnson / 60 Pound Bullet

MEET ARNOLD: BE A BAHAMAS BLACK GROUPER GROUPIE


Black Grouper, Bahamas (Arnold) - Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

MEET ARNOLD: BE A BAHAMAS BLACK GROUPER GROUPIE

The Black Grouper, like all its cousins, has the twin disadvantages of being fished for sport and fished for food. As demand for grouper on the menu rises, so does its vulnerability. The species is described as a ‘slow breeder’, so a depleting population has less chance of sustaining numbers. The consequence is an exponentially diminishing stock of the species. The equation is simple: fewer fish means less and less stock replenishment.

Black Grouper, Bahamas (Arnold) - Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Formerly plentiful, these groupers (like other grouper species) have moved from an IUCN listing of ‘Least Concern’ to ‘Near-Threatened’. Whatever effect climate change may be having on the oceans, stock depletion of this noble species also has more direct human causes.

Black Grouper, Bahamas (Arnold) - Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

An adult black grouper’s diet consists of small fish and squid. Juveniles feed primarily on crustaceans. However, certain tiny reef fish – blennies and gobies for example – are important to the species as ‘cleaners’. You can read about their significance by clicking CLEANING STATIONS.

Black Grouper, Bahamas (Arnold) - Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

The service performed by tiny fish on large ones (not only groupers) is an example of a symbiotic relationship known as ‘mutualism’**, in which both parties benefit (the little fishes get gacky bits of grouper to eat). The cleaners are able to do their work inside the gills and even the mouth of the host without being at risk.

Black Grouper, Bahamas (Arnold) - Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

The NASSAU GROUPER has a defined and enforced closed season to help maintain numbers. It will be interesting to see if the same protection is eventually extended to the black grouper and indeed to other grouper species.

** The other two types of symbiotic relationship are commensalism, in which only one species benefits while the other is neither helped nor harmed; and parasitism, where one creature (the parasite) gains, while the other (the host) suffers.

RELATED POSTS

TIGER GROUPER

NASSAU GROUPER

RED HIND

GRAYSBY

Credits: all photos Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba 

Black Grouper, Bahamas (Arnold) - Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

BAHAMAS TURTLES: BE AWARE BUT DON’T BEWARE


Green Turtle Eye (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

GREEN TURTLE WATCHING

BAHAMAS TURTLES: BE AWARE BUT DON’T BEWARE

MAY 23 is another one of those ‘species awareness’ days. Somewhere in the world, it seems that every day of the year has a creature to be aware of. As the Sixth Extinction looms (the one we’ve promoted in basically two generations), a state of heightened awareness is where we should all be at. 

TURTLES BY ADAM REES / SCUBA WORKS

Hawksbill Turtle (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

Hawksbill Turtle (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)Hawksbill Turtle (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

That’s not an end in itself of course – it’s merely the first step to doing something about the species in question… and beyond that, every species. We’ve screwed up their world for them. Awareness is just a wake-up call to action. Support a cause. Join an organisation or group. Support campaigns. Sign up. Write stuff. Do stuff. Don’t do other stuff. Even wearing a “Save the Great-crested Newt” T-shirt would be better than nothing.

TURTLES BY MELINDA RIGER / GRAND BAHAMA SCUBA

Hawksbill Turtle (Virginia Cooper / Grand Bahama Scuba) Hawksbill Turtle (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)Hawksbill Turtle (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Back to the turtles. I have featured a few great sea turtle photos (none of them mine) to concentrate the mind on today’s special species – one of the most loved and admired of the sea creatures of the Bahamas archipelago. If they go, we humans may not be far behind (but at least we won’t have stomachs full of plastic trash).

TURTLES: HAPPY TOGETHER!

Credits: Melinda Riger, Adam Rees, Virginia Cooper – and to all for their work in revealing the wonderful world beneath the ocean waves

Hawksbill Turtle (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

 

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (52)


ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (52)

I last featured the cheerfully-coloured Rock Beauty Holacanthus tricolor 2 or 3 years back. Time has passed; new photos exist; new people have signed up to follow this eclectic menagerie (thank you both). Time for another look at these beauties, which also happen to be cuties.

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Look at the little guy above –  posing for Pixar, adorably hoping to star in Part 3 of the Nemo / Dory trilogy

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

These fish are a small species of angelfish. Seen swimming around the reefs they are unmistakeable, not least because of their bright yellow hi-viz jackets, remarkable blue eyeliner and blue-black lippy. 

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Rock Beauties look like prime candidates for anyone’s aquarium, but their picky dietary requirements and tendency for aggression make them unsuitable.

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

They are highly specialised feeders, needing marine sponge in their daily diet. They are also prone to chase their tank-mates and nip them. On balance, they look more fetching nosing about the coral anyway.

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

WHAT DO JUVENILES LOOK LIKE?

Juvenile rock beauties are cute mini-versions of the adults, only more yellow and with yellow lips. In some development stages, they have a smart blue circle around the dark patch on their sides (bottom image).

ROCK BEAUTY: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Rock Beauty, Bahamas (Living Oceans Foundation))

NOTE Rock Beauties have no known kinship with Chrissie, Debbie, Lita, Joan, Jennifer, Stevie, Madge and the rest of the accredited ‘Rock Beauties aka Chicks’ 

NOT A TRUE ‘ROCK BEAUTY’ (no offence, Lita)

A TRUE ROCK BEAUTY

Credits: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba; WP

TUNICATES: SESSILE ASEXUAL SEA-SQUIRTS


Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

TUNICATES: SESSILE ASEXUAL SEA-SQUIRTS

Painted Tunicates Clavina picta are one of several species of tunicate ‘sea-squirts’ found in Bahamas and Caribbean waters. These creatures with their translucent bodies are usually found clustered together, sometimes in very large groups. One reason for this is that they are ‘sessile’, unable to move from where they have taken root on the coral.

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

HOW DO THEY FEED?

Like most if not all sea squirts, tunicates are filter feeders. Their structure is simple, and enables them to draw water into their body cavity. In fact they have 2 openings, an ‘oral siphon’ to suck in water; and an exit called the ‘atrial siphon’. Tiny particles of food (e.g. plankton) are separated internally from the water by means of a tiny organ (‘branchial basket’) like a sieve. The water is then expelled. 

Diagram of adult solitary tunicate

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

WHAT DOES ‘TUNICATE’ MEAN?

The creatures have a flexible protective covering referred to as a ‘tunic’. ‘Coveringates’ didn’t really work as a name, so the tunic aspect became the name. 

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

IF THEY CAN’T MOVE, HOW DO THEY… (erm…) REPRODUCE?

Tunicates are broadly speaking asexual. Once a colony has become attached to corals or sponges, they are able to ‘bud’, ie to produce clones to join the colony. These are like tiny tadpoles and their first task is to settle and attach themselves to something suitable – for life – using a sticky secretion. Apparently they do this head first, then in effect turn themselves upside down as they develop the internal bits and pieces they need for adult life. The colony grows because (*speculation alert*) the most obvious place for the ‘tadpoles’ to take root is presumably in the immediate area they were formed.

 

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

APART FROM BEING STATIONARY & ASEXUAL, ANY OTHER ATTRIBUTES?

Some types of tunicate contain particular chemicals that are related to those used to combat some forms of cancer and a number of viruses. So they have a potential use in medical treatments, in particular in helping to repair tissue damage.

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Credits: all fabulous close-up shots by Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba; diagram from depts.washington.edu; magpie pickings with a particular mention of an article by Sara MacSorley

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

 

‘REEF ENCOUNTER’ 1: GRAY ANGELFISH


Gray Angelfish 9with four-eyed butterflyfish), Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

‘REEF ENCOUNTER’ 1: GRAY ANGELFISH

Today I learn from a cheery message from WordPress that my illustrated ramblings have been going on for exactly X years, where X is greater than 5 but less than 10. Time to start a new theme: channelling my inner Noel Coward, I am introducing a new mainly pictorial series provisionally called ‘Reef Encounter’. All the awesome beauty of reef life will be here.

Gray Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

In the past I have posted about GRAY ANGELFISH, one of three kinds of angelfish found in the northern Bahamas. Today, I am featuring some more recent images of these pretty creatures. Note in particular the striking shape and colour of their mouths, the blue being found also on the fin edges at the back.

Gray Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)Gray Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

On this otherwise gray fish, you’ll also find touches of yellow on the face and the edges of the front fins. In the header image there’s another little fish in the bottom right corner. Not a baby angelfish, but a FOUR-EYED BUTTERFLYFISH – a species that will feature in own right in due course

Gray Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

All fabulous photos by Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

Gray Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)