Royal Tern Crowned

I wrote this post about Royal Terns Thalasseus maximus* quite some time ago, in the early days of Delphi  (and indeed Rolling Harbour™ ® ). Bonefishing was a completely new experience and my skills were embryonic. As they continued to be for the duration. By then the amazing birdlife of Abaco had reeled me in and BIRDS OF ABACO was in the planning stage.

If there’s a magnificent golden bandwagon drawn by 8 horses passing by, why not just hop on? I’ve skipped the info about the range and nesting arrangements of these birds. Here are a few, in all their regal glory, posing in the sunshine on a dead tree way out on the Abaco Marls. The header image was taken on Cherokee Long Dock, long pre-Dorian and its magnificent replacement.

Royal Terns Abaco (2) 4Royal Terns Abaco (2) 6 Royal Terns Abaco (2) 5 Royal Terns Abaco (2) 3 Royal Terns Abaco (2) 2 Royal Terns Abaco (2) 1

** Now to be renamed Thalasseus carolus rex magnificans. Not worldwide, obviously.

PS No terns were injured in trying to get the yellow crown to fit one of them


Pine Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Bruce Hallett)



The Pine Warbler Setophaga pinus is one of 5 year-round resident warblers (endemics) on Abaco. All are to be admired, of course. The others are Bahama yellowthroat; Bahama warbler; olive-capped warbler; and yellow warbler. 

The pine warbler is also to be envied for several reasons:

  • Like most Setophagae, they are bright, lively and attractive birds
  • Bahamas residents all year round – no long exhausting migration flights twice a year
  • Abaco has vast areas of their preferred pine forest habitat
  • They are plentiful – the population is largely untroubled by usual habitat concerns
  • They are one of the few seed-eating warbler species, so feeders are a bonus


Pine Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Alex Hughes)

As the name strongly hints, the pine warbler is primarily a bird of the pine forests, of which Abaco has an abundance. The tall, straight trees of Abaco were once a vital local source of timber (SAWMILL SINK q.v.). As a historical note, felled pines were also exported to the UK to be made into the strong pit-props needed for coal-mines. 

Pine Warbler (immature), Abaco Bahamas (Bruce Hallett)




Pine Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Tom Reed)

Pine warblers have a broad diet and forage methodically. Pine cones are a fertile source for food,  and those robust, stabby, slightly down-curved beaks are ideal for getting the seeds out of the cones. Equally, these warblers use their beaks to prise / pry out insects from the rough pine trunks and branches.




Pine Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Tom Sheley)



The pine forest is obviously the preferred nesting habitat for these birds. The warblers also nest in the smaller groups of pines found (for example) in or near some of the settlements; or in backcountry around the edges of former sugar cane fields and the like. One nesting habit is slightly unusual – pine warblers tend to build their nests near the end of branches rather than near the trunk, a position that seems far less secure. One theory on pine warbler nest location is that they feel safer from predators by building at the end of a small branch*. 


Pine Warbler (immature), Abaco Bahamas (Bruce Hallett)



One source states that “The song of this bird is a musical trill. Their calls are slurred chips. I think we’ve all been there at some time, possibly when lunching at Pete’s Pub.

MUSICAL TRILL Paul Driver / Xeno Canto

SLURRED CHIP Don Jones / Xeno-Canto

Photo Credits: Bruce Hallett (1, 3, 6); Alex Hughes (2); Tom Reed (4); Tom Sheley (5); Dick Daniels (7); Wiki (range map); Nat Geo (species drawings); Paul Driver / Xeno Canto – call; Don Jones / Xeno Canto – chips; Milton Harris – nesting theory 

Pine Warbler (Dick Daniels wiki)


Smooth-billed Ani, TCGC Hole 11 - Becky Marvil


The Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani) is one of three members of the cuckoo family found on Abaco, the others being the MANGROVE CUCKOO and the YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO. Anis range from Florida and the Bahamas in the north down through the Caribbean to South America, where they are widespread.

Smooth Billed Ani, Abaco - Nina Henry 2a

Unlike their shy and retiring cuckoo cousins, anis are extrovert shouty birds that like to hang out in noisy gangs and family groups. They can often be found in low scrub, bickering, squawking, and generally fluttering around in a disorderly way. You’ll probably hear them from some way off, sounding like this:

Anis have advanced social, parenting and chick-rearing skills. They build a communal nest for the group, and all share in egg incubation and chick-feeding duties They may raise up to three broods in a season, which keeps the numbers up. Rather touchingly, the young of earlier broods help to feed more recent chicks.

It follows from this that unlike many other cuckoo species, the ani is not a brood parasite. So the species does not lay its eggs in the nests of other, smaller birds which then unwittingly rear the interloper(s), who in turn push the legitimate hatchlings out of the nest and get all the food and attention.

Smooth-billed Anis Abaco - Gerlinde Taurer d

I have tried to discover why an ani’s beak is as it is, without much success. Very often beak shape relates directly to the feeding habits and preferences of a species, but it is hard to see how a diet consisting mainly of insects and small reptiles such as lizards would account for such a prominently protuberant proboscis. Here is a close-up of the item in question.

Smooth-billed Ani, Abaco_Roselyn Pierce
On Abaco (and indeed elsewhere) Anis are sometimes known as ‘Cemetery Birds’, no doubt because of their all-black appearance (though their raucous tendencies would be quite inappropriate for a graveyard). However although at a distance these birds may look completely black, catch one in the sun at the right angle, and you’ll find that the plumage is far more varied, and with some intricate patterning.

Smooth-billed Ani. Abaco Bahamas Tom Sheley

Look for Anis in low scrubland and coppice, cultivated areas, perched in unsteady noisy rows on utility lines, or foraging on the ground.

Smooth-billed Ani, Abaco. Gerlinde Taurer c

The appearance and flying abilities of Anis are wonders to behold. As I wrote in The Birds of Abaco, “Their curious heavy beaks, their clumsy flight and their untidy take-off and landing routines suggest a design fault”.

Smooth Billed Ani, Abaco - Nina Henry 1a


“One… is the loneliest number…” Oh, hang on a moment…Smooth-billed Ani Abaco - Gerlinde Taurer a

…”two of us…standing solo in the sun…”Smooth-billed Ani, Abaco (Gerlinde Taurer) b

The Philatelic Bureau of the Bahamas Postal Service is commendably committed to featuring the natural history of the Bahamas. Although probably not in the top-ten of anyone’s bird list, the ani nevertheless got its own stamp in a 1991 bird issue.

As far as I know, there is not yet a collective noun for a group of anis. There should be. I put forward A Commotion of Anis” 

Smooth-biled Ani, Abaco - Bruce Hallett



Credits (all photos taken on Abaco): Becky Marvil, Nina Henry, Paul Harding, Gerlinde Taurer, Roselyn Pierce, Tom Sheley, Bruce Hallett, Keith Salvesen; sound files from Xeno Canto and FMNH; range map from IUCN; hat tip to the always excellent Aimee Mann. ** yes yes I know these aren’t her original songs but I like the AM versions a

s much

Smooth-biled Ani, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)


Osprey, Abaco Bahamas (Tom Sheley)


I have featured bird comparatives from time to time, not least because scope for confusion meant that I needed to investigate for my own peace of mind. These included the tyrant flycatchers; a number of superficially similar warbler species (mostly with yellow bits); varied vireos; all those heron-y / egret-y types and their disconcerting morphs (hello, white reddish egret).

Osprey P.h.carolinensis (CWFNJ)

And so to the magnificent osprey Pandion haliaetus. This time, the comparison is between two subspecies, broadly the North American P. h. carolinensis and the Caribbean P.h. ridgwayi. There is some overlap in Florida, and some evidence of interbreeding. In the northern Bahamas in particular there is also an overlap, so an osprey seen on Abaco could be either variety. You’ll probably be too excited watching it to care much which type it is, but this article will help you if you do…

The two ospreys shown below were photographed at Spanish Wells, Eleuthera by Barbara Crouchley. This is a ‘bingo’ photographic scoop, because each type of bird was found in the same region; now we can check out the differences between the two birds. 

The first is a North American bird. Note in particular its distinctive eye mask, and the clearly marked upper breast – more so in the female than the male (which may even be white). The overall impression of the upper-parts is dark brown. They are slightly larger than their cousins in the south.

Osprey P.h. Carolinensis, Eleuthera Bahama (Barbara Crouchley)

Osprey P.h. carolinensis

In this Caribbean bird, below, with its trophy fish, the eye-mask is absent and the facial / nape markings are less pronounced. Furthermore, the breast and under-parts are white in both sexes (though slight marking may be apparent in some birds). And  the impression is of lighter upper-parts, even allowing for variable lighting and distance when the photos were taken. Conveniently, there’s not much detectable difference between male and females in the respective populations.

Osprey P.h. Ridgwayi, Eleuthera Bahama (Barbara Crouchley)

Osprey P.h. ridgwayi

EXAMPLES OF P. h. carolinensis

Osprey P.h. Carolinensis, Florida (Danny Sauvageau)Osprey P.h. Carolinensis, Florida (Danny Sauvageau)Osprey P.h. Carolinensis, Florida (Danny Sauvageau)

EXAMPLES OF P. h. ridgwayi

Osprey P.h. ridgwayi, Grand Bahama (Linda Barry Cooper)

Osprey P.h. ridgwayi, Abaco (Woody Bracey)


After I had looked into the noted distinctions I wrote “I’m going to stick my neck out here – I’ve not seen this mentioned anywhere, and I need to do some more comparative research”. When I saw Barbara’s pair of photos, I noticed that the eyes of the P.h.r were much paler compared with the bright orangey-yellow of P.h.c. This distinction is found in all the comparative photos above. The P.h.cs were photographed in Florida and further north and have the strikingly vivid eyes. The were photographed on Abaco and Grand Bahama at different times by different people. All have noticeably paler irises, more a light greeny-yellow.  

I haven’t seen this commented on since my original piece, but if anyone has a view it would be welcome.


There’s a further comparison that can be made with the two subspecies in flight. Without going into technical and linguistic detail, the underwings of the P.h.cs are much darker than the Bahamas birds, whereas are notably paler and in some cases mostly white.  As an example, below is a distance shot I took when bonefishing out on the Abaco Marls, with a small pocket camera in one hand and a rod in the other. This is definitely a local bird! Compare with the dramatic image below it, where the strong darker markings are all too evident. It’s a great shot with which to bring the lesson to an end.

ADDENDUM: Thanks to LSulikM for pointing out that female carolinensis  (besides being larger than males) have frontal freckling, sometimes called a necklace, that is a prominent ID marker (see bottom image). Males may also have  freckling but it is much less conspicuous. For ridgwayi the freckling is absent or (see the bird on the utility pole above) very sparse.

Osprey P.h. ridgwayi, Abaco Marls (Keith Salvesen)

Osprey in flight with fish (Northside Jim)

Photo credits: Tom Sheley (1); CWFNJ (2); Barbara Crouchley (3, 4); Danny Sauvageau (5, 6, 7); Jim Todd (8); Linda Barry Cooper (9); Woody Bracey (10); Keith Salvesen (11); the inimitable Northside Jim (12). Thanks for all use permissions – also to Steve Connett for the idea! Original post in 2020.




The bluehead wrasse (or blue-headed wrasse) Thalassoma bifasciatum is a denizen of the coral reefs in the tropical waters of the western Atlantic Ocean. This bright little 4-inch fish is… a wrasse with a blue head. No more and no less. Unless it’s a juvenile. Then it is mainly bright yellow. It’s similar to BLUE TANG (aka ‘the Disney Dory’), which starts life bright yellow and grows up to be blue.


The species may be found singly, in pairs or small groups, or in schools.  They have an important role to play in the life of the reef. They are CLEANER FISH, vital to the health and wellbeing of the larger species they attend to, and thus of the reef itself. This is ‘cleaning symbiosis’, a relationship of mutual benefit. The big fish get cleaned; the little fish have a useful function and – importantly for them – therefore don’t get eaten. 


Having said that, blueheads are of course fair game as a snack for species that aren’t in the market for their cleaning services. Rather unfairly, some species that are quite content to let cleaner gobies pick around their gills and mouths are not so considerate of the wrasse (some types of grouper and moray eel, for example).



  • Juveniles can alter the intensity of their colour, stripes & bars
  • The bluehead wrasse is a ‘protogynous sequential hermaphrodite’
  • All are born female**. Some change sex to male during maturation (see below)
  • Food includes zooplankton, small molluscs and small crustaceans…
  • …and parasites / other juicy bits (fungal growths, anyone?) from bigger fish
  • Main threats to the species are coral reef degradation / destruction and pollution
  • The bright colours invite aquarium use, but the trade in this species is not critical.

** Some sources suggest some are born male and remain male.

A juvenile bluehead – mostly yellow, with a pale underside
Bluehead Wrasse juvenile (wiki)


This is an unavoidable topic, I’m afraid. The bluehead’s sex life is the most interesting thing about them, and this is no time to be prudish. It has been the subject of extensive scientific research. As with many human relationships, “it’s complicated” but in a conch shell it boils down to this:

  • To recap, BWs are born female and as they mature, some become male.
  • Males reach an ‘initial phase’ when they can breed in groups with females
  • Some males grow larger & reach full colouration. This is the ‘terminal phase’
  • These large males aggressively chase away smaller ones & seek females to pair with
  • Their state of readiness is signalled by colour changes BUT the females know…
  • …that the smaller males have a sperm count higher than dominant males. 

blue-headed_wrasse_det (wiki)

As the excellent organisation OCEANA puts it: Bluehead Wrasses may reproduce in four different ways throughout their lifetime:  1) as a female in a group spawning event; 2) as a female in a pair spawning event within the territory of a large male; 3) as a small male in a group spawning event; and 4) as a dominant, terminal male in a pair spawning event within its own territory.

A cropped still from a video I took at Fowl Cay marine reserve. I’ve looked at dozens of images online and not found one that was all blue with a yellow end to its tail fin. Perhaps it is just an all-blue alpha male.bluehead-wrasse-fowl-cay-mr-abaco

Credits & Sources: Melinda Riger; Adam Rees; James St John; Oregon State edu / Pinterest; Wiki images; self; Oceana; IUCN; magpie pickings


Flamingo Tongue Snails (Melinda Rogers, Dive Abaco, Bahamas)


FLAMINGO TONGUE SNAILS Cyphoma gibbous are small marine gastropod molluscs related to cowries. The living animal is brightly coloured and strikingly patterned, but that colour only exists in the ‘live’ parts – the so-called ‘mantle’. The shell itself is usually pale, and characterised by a thick ridge round the middle. Whether alive or as shells, they are gratifyingly easy to identify. These snails live in the tropical waters of the Caribbean and the wider western Atlantic. 

Flamingo Tongue Snails (Melinda Rogers, Dive Abaco, Bahamas)


Flamingo tongue snails feed by browsing on soft corals. Often, they will leave tracks behind them on the coral stems as they forage (see image below). But corals are not only food – they provide the ideal sites for the creature’s breeding cycle.

Flamingo Tongue Snails (Dive Abaco, Bahamas)Flamingo Tongue Snails (Melinda Rogers, Dive Abaco, Bahamas)

Adult females attach eggs to coral which they have recently fed upon. About 10 days later, the larvae hatch. They eventually settle onto other gorgonian corals such as Sea Fans. Juveniles tend to live protectively on the underside of coral branches, while adults are far more visible and mobile. Where the snail leaves a feeding scar, the corals can regrow the polyps, and therefore the snail’s feeding preference is generally not harmful to the coral.

The principal purpose of the patterned mantle of tissue over the shell is to act as the creature’s breathing apparatus. The tissue absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. As it has been (unkindly?) described, the mantle is “basically their lungs, stretched out over their rather boring-looking shell”. There’s more to them than that!

Flamingo Tongue Snails (Melinda Rogers, Dive Abaco, Bahamas)


The species, once common, is becoming rarer. The natural predators include hogfish, pufferfish and spiny lobsters, though the spotted mantle provides some defence by being (a) startling in appearance and (b) on closer inspection by a predator, rather unpalatable. Gorgonian corals contain natural toxins, and instead of secreting these after feeding, the snail stores them. This supplements the defence provided by its APOSEMATIC COLORATION, the vivid colour and /or pattern warning sign to predators found in many animal species.

Flamingo Tongue Snails (Melinda Rogers, Dive Abaco, Bahamas)


It comes as little surprise to learn that man is considered to be the greatest menace to these little creatures, and the reason for their significant decline in numbers. The threat comes from snorkelers and divers who mistakenly / ignorantly think that the colour of the mantle is the actual shell of the animal, collect up a whole bunch from the reef, and in due course are left with… dead snails and their allegedly dull shells Don’t be a collector; be a protector…

Flamingo Tongue Snails (Melinda Rogers, Dive Abaco, Bahamas)

The photos below are of nude flamingo tongue shells. Until I read the ‘boring-looking shell’ comment, I believed everyone thought they were rather lovely… I did, anyway. I still do. You decide!

Flamingo Tongue Snail Shell, Keith Salvesen AbacoFlamingo Tongue Snail Shell, Keith Salvesen Abaco

Flamingo Tongue Snails (Melinda Rogers, Dive Abaco, Bahamas)

Image Credits:  Melinda Rogers / Dive Abaco; Keith Salvesen / Rolling Harbour; Wiki Leopard


Thanks to all followers, likers, commenters, regular visitors, one-offs, local wildlife organisations, and friends of Rolling Harbour in general. This year we passed 1 million hits over the ten years of this blog. Proving that people love Abaco, the Bahamas, birds, marine mammals, manatees, reef fish, sharks, turtles, shore-life, shells, insects, plant life, bonefishing, lighthouses, local history, maps, conservation and a whole lot more; and are prepared to tolerate bad puns, haphazard presentation, and a less than rigourous scientific approach to it all.

Weirdest search term ever: How to dispose of dead bodies?


Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)


Painted Tunicates Clavina picta are one of several species of tunicate ‘sea-squirts’ found in Bahamas and Caribbean waters. These creatures with their translucent bodies are usually found clustered together, sometimes in very large groups. One reason for this is that they are ‘sessile’, unable to move from where they have taken root on the coral.

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)


Like most if not all sea squirts, tunicates are filter feeders. Their structure is simple, and enables them to draw water into their body cavity. In fact they have 2 openings, an ‘oral siphon’ to suck in water; and an exit called the ‘atrial siphon’. Tiny particles of food (e.g. plankton) are separated internally from the water by means of a tiny organ (‘branchial basket’) like a sieve. The water is then expelled. 

Diagram of adult solitary tunicate

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)


The creatures have a flexible protective covering referred to as a ‘tunic’. ‘Coveringcates’ didn’t really work as a name, so the tunic aspect became the name. 

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)


Tunicates are broadly speaking asexual. Once a colony has become attached to corals or sponges, they are able to ‘bud’, ie to produce clones to join the colony. These are like tiny tadpoles and their first task is to settle and attach themselves to something suitable – for life – using a sticky secretion. Apparently they do this head first, then in effect turn themselves upside down as they develop the internal bits and pieces they need for adult life. The colony grows because (*speculation alert*) the most obvious place for the ‘tadpoles’ to take root is presumably in the immediate area they were formed.

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)


Some types of tunicate contain particular chemicals that are related to those used to combat some forms of cancer and a number of viruses. So they have a potential use in medical treatments, in particular in helping to repair tissue damage.

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)

Credits: all fabulous close-up shots by Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba; diagram from; magpie pickings with a particular mention of an article by Sara MacSorley

Painted Tunicates Bahamas (Melinda Riger / GB Scuba)


Barracuda, Abaco Bahamas (Melinda Rogers / Dive Abaco)


There’s no doubt about it, barracudas have a particularly unwelcoming look to them. They exude menace. There’s something about the torpedo shape, the primitive head, and the uncomfortably snaggle-toothed grin-with-underbite that suggests a creature not to be underestimated.

Barracuda, Abaco Bahamas (Melinda Rogers / Dive Abaco)

And that smiley mouth – rather scornful and derisive, is it not? A powerful creature in its element, where you are the intruder… and it sees it like that too. An adult barracuda may grow to nearly 6 foot long. Your are only temporarily of its world, and (it observes) you are keeping your distance.

Barracuda, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

The dental arrangements of a ‘cuda are a wonder in themselves. The teeth are razor sharp; an orthodontist’s nightmare because they are all different sizes and grow at different angles. Some are conventionally set in the jaws, but some actually grow from the roof of the mouth. There are ‘normal’ sized teeth interspersed with wicked-looking fangs that randomly grow facing forwards, backwards and sideways.

Barracuda, Abaco Bahamas (Melinda Rogers / Dive Abaco)

WHY THE UNTIDY MOUTH FURNITURE?Barracuda, Abaco Bahamas (Melinda Rogers / Dive Abaco)

The name Barracuda is thought to derive from the Spanish word barraco meaning (in one of its senses) “overlapping teeth”. The jaws that contain the teeth are strong, and the underbite adds to the effectiveness of ‘cuda predation. Prey is highly unlikely to escape once caught.  When the jaws snap shut, the sharp angled teeth – particularly the back-facing ones (cf fishhook barbs) prevent the victim from pulling away. Then the munching and shredding can begin inside what is essentially a perfectly equipped multi-bladed mincing machine.

Credits: Melinda Rogers / Dive Abaco except #3 & #8  Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

Here’s looking at you…


West Indian Manatee, Bahamas (BMMRO / Charlotte Dunn / Keith Salvesen)



Manatees are apex ‘gorgeous marine mammals’. Gentle, inquisitive, brave, long-distance-but-rather-slow-swimming, grass-grazing miracle ur-elephant descendants. They never made it out of the sea in the Miocene epoch.

West Indian Manatee, Bahamas (BMMRO / Charlotte Dunn / Keith Salvesen)

Incongruous in a world of fast sharks, snappy ‘cudas, large whales and leaping dolphins, they contentedly mooch around the seagrass beds. No one in the world has ever objected to or dissed a manatee. They bring only delight to the sea-world, and offer only charm to mankind.

Manatee Awareness Graphic (Peppermint Narwhal)

West Indian Manatee, Bahamas (BMMRO / Charlotte Dunn / Keith Salvesen)

In the past, I’ve written about the small number of manatees that inhabit the turquoise inner waters of the Bahamas. They were carefully recorded with individual identifying features – usually nicks in the paddle, or scarring. Usually they were named and, where possible, fitted with a tracker. Their friendships and amorous hook-ups were noted. Despite a 16-month birth cycle, manatee-lets were born. Then Dorian struck, and the situation for manatees (as with many other creatures) became unclear. The good news is that they are now increasingly sighted, with photos taken and soc med posts to admire.


West Indian Manatee, Bahamas (BMMRO / Charlotte Dunn / Keith Salvesen)
Gina and Calf, Bahamas (BMMRO)


Yes indeed. It’s mankind, I’m afraid. Among the threats to the survival of these unusual, endearing, and legally protected creatures are, in no particular order:

  • Pollution of inshore waters and canals
  • Degradation of the (formerly limitless) sea-grass beds where they feed
  • Reduction or tainting of the fresh water sources that they need to survive
  • Understandable over-enthusiasm by admirers – especially in harbours – in dousing them with water from hoses and feeding them lettuce…
  • …and similar behaviours that may lead to a trusting dependance on humans
  • Unthinking or speed-selfish boat behaviour in or near harbours resulting in collisions
  • Simply not caring at all and carving them up, leaving often deep prop-scars. Few manatees escape at least a few of these. Some do not survive.
  • Probably I don’t need to mention man-caused Global Warming, but I just have.
West Indian Manatee, Bahamas (BMMRO / Charlotte Dunn / Keith Salvesen)

Let’s celebrate this special month for manatees. Let’s hope that they can survive and prosper in these increasingly difficult and dangerous times for almost all species. Look at any of these photos… can we agree that these wonderful animals deserve care and protection.

West Indian Manatee, Bahamas (BMMRO / Charlotte Dunn / Keith Salvesen)

All photos: Charlotte Dunn / BMMRO and research contributors; final image ‘Save the Manatee’



European Starling Sturnus vulgaris – High Line NYCRH

We are all familiar with some of the collective nouns for birds – flocks, flights, broods, maybe companies (parrots) and so on. There are plenty of lesser known terms for specific birds, of which quite a few seem rather remarkable: a wisdom of owls, a murder of crows, a lamentation of swans, an unkindness of ravens, an exaltation of larks. Most of these refer to perceived characteristics of a particular species (the swan pining for a lost mate – they pair for life). Some date from medieval times.


In the UK in late autumn, starlings start to gather in huge flocks in trees and open fields. Twitchers begin to gather too, in their all-weather plumage, ready to watch the sensational avian displays of thousands and thousands of starlings as they take to the air almost simultaneously. They swirl in densely packed random formation, drawing complex patterns across the sky. The group will constantly change direction and height, sometimes splitting into subgroups and reforming. They may suddenly drop to the ground in a teeming raucous mass, before taking off again to continue the display.

It is sometimes possible to sense when the flight is about to begin, In a huge packed group on the ground, there is a hint of restlessness. There is movement. A few birds seem to jump slightly. Then in a flash they are away into the sky.

A brief encounter with a small murmuration last week

Murmuration, early evening, Maiden Castle, Dorset (an iron-age hill fort) iPhone

Starlings Sturnus vulgaris are a European species. They are now common in North America, less so in the Bahamas. The non-European distribution happened this way: All the European Starlings in North America are descended from 100 birds set loose in New York’s Central Park in the early 1890s. The birds were intentionally released by a group who wanted America to have all the birds that Shakespeare ever mentioned.* In return, gray squirrels were introduced into Europe at about the same time, with the population increasing exponentially and displacing the indigenous red squirrel..

* All About Birds – Cornell Lab

Photos: Keith Salvesen, Bruce Hallett, Wiki Commons; Video Clip Keith Salvesen; Cartoon by the very excellent Birdorable


Cape May Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Charmaine Albury)



The history of ornithological classification and nomenclature is littered with peculiarities. The attractive migratory Cape May Warbler Setophaga tigrina is a very good example of premature evaluation. 

The range of the species is well defined. In the summer the birds live within a broad band that straddles northern USA and Canada. In the winter they head south with all their migratory warbler cousins across the yellow band to (mainly) the Bahamas.

Cape May Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Bruce Hallett)

As with all migratory species, some birds each year will wander or be blown off-course; or will take a rest stop en route and decide to stick around. And so it was that in May 1812, a month before the Battle of Waterloo, the first ever specimen of the species was collected on Cape May NJ by George Ord during an exploratory trip with naturalist ALEXANDER WILSON (he of plover & snipe fame). To be specific, they had gone to shoot the birds they wanted to collect. The bodies, from large down to tiny, were after all the only irrefutable evidence of a new ‘find’ at that time. Detailed drawings could be made and descriptions composed. The later display of the specimens enabled the expansion of ornithological knowledge and methodology, and brought consequent  renown. The great Audubon took the research method *treading very carefully here* rather further than one might be comfortable with today, with somewhat indiscriminate use of lead shot.

Cape May Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Bruce Hallett)

As Wilson later wrote (note the words ‘beautiful little species, ‘shooting excursion’ and ‘ransacked’)

THIS new and beautiful little species was discovered in a maple swamp, in Cape May county, not far from the coast, by Mr. George Ord of this city, who accompanied me on a shooting excursion to that quarter in the month of May last…The same swamp that furnished us with this elegant little stranger, and indeed several miles around it, were ransacked by us both for another specimen of the same; but without success. Fortunately it proved to be a male, and being in excellent plumage, enabled me to preserve a faithful portrait of the original.

Cape May Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Sandy Walker)

The odd (indeed ‘Ord’) thing was that the first-ever specimen was a complete one-off in that location at that time. Not a single sighting of the species (named Sylvia maritima by Wilson) was reported on Cape May or in that area for more than a century. Then at last in 1920, another example was found. Nowadays the CMW is not in the least unusual in the location that gave it its name. 

Cape May Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Sandy Walker)

On Abaco, CMWs are classified as WR1, which is to say common winter residents. Males have striking chestnut cheeks in the breeding season, with strong streaking on the underside. Note also the black eyestripe. Females and juveniles are paler and the marking is less prominent. These warblers are insectivorous; in winter they may also feed on nectar and fruit. Behaviour-wise, they have aggressive tendencies in defence of their territory and of their food sources. 

Cape May Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Becky Marvil)

In researching this post, I discovered a strange (but slightly dull) fact. The CMW is unique among warblers in having a tubular tongue to enable nectar feeding (as with hummingbirds). This random fact hardly has the makings of lively conversation (though you might want to try it out) but considering the multitude of warbler species in existence, the CMW has the benefit of a rather special adaptation.

Tongue 2 (bottom left) is the CMW; No.5 is a bananaquit’s feathery tongue

Cape May Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Bruce Hallett)


Unhelpfully, even the authorities have a tough time describing the song and call of a CMW. As with so many song-birds, variations on the theme “the song is a simple repetition of high tsi notes; the call is a thin sip” are the best you can hope for. However, it’s worth noting that the species generally prefers to sing from high perches, which might help with ID. But then so do other warblers I’m afraid. Here’s something more practical  – the tsi and the sip:

Cape May Warbler, Abaco Bahamas (Sandy Walker)


  • Photo Credits: Charmaine Albury [from The Birds of Abaco] (1); Bruce Hallett (2, 6); Sandy Walker (3, 4, 7); Becky Marvil (5); Danny Sauvageau (8).
  • Audubon Cartoon: On the Wings of the World; Grolleau & Royer / Nobrow (highly recommended)
  • Drawing, Nat Geo
  • Range map, Allaboutbirds / Cornell
  • Audio clips Martin St-Michel / Xeno-Canto;
  • Research refs include, with thanks, American Ornithological Society / Bob Montgomerie (Queen’s University); Camino Travel Costa Rica; OS

Cape May Warbler (Danny Sauvageau)


Curly-tailed Lizard, Abaco Bahamas (Keith Salvesen)


The northern curly-tailed lizard Leiocephalus carinatus, to give it its full name, resembles a tiny dragon with a twist in the tail. These little critters bask in the sun, or scuttle away into holes and crevices as you approach them. I suspect that even a confirmed herpophobic would find some charm in them. They are, of course, completely harmless to humans. 

Curly-tailed Lizard, Abaco Bahamas (Charles Skinner)

Surprisingly, the Bahamas is home not just to one but five different curly-tail species, and nine sub-species. Broadly-speaking, the variants are found on different and specific islands and have discrete local markings. Mostly they are brownish, but they may also be grey or with a greenish tinge like this one I recently photographed.

Curly-tailed Lizard, Abaco Bahamas (Keith Salvesen) Curly-tailed Lizard, Abaco Bahamas (Keith Salvesen)

Curly-tail males, being territorial, turn somewhat aggressive around breeding time, which is basically most the the year, from February to October. Behaviours indicative of their territorial claims include tail curling / uncurling (of course), head-bobbing, strutting about in an agitated way and inflating the sides of their necks in a threatening kind of way. The tiny-tails, 2″ long when born, are known as ‘hatchlings’.

An impressive poolside ‘double curly’Curly-tailed Lizard, Abaco Bahamas (Keith Salvesen)


According to the Bahamas National Trust BNT, the main dangers to the curly-tails of the Bahamas are:

  • Dogs, cats, rats and introduced predators such as raccoons
  • Collection for the pet trade – curly tails are unprotected by CITES listing (also cute)
  • Collection of the rarer endemics by reptile enthusiasts seeking ‘exotics’
  • Development and habitat destruction (though it is noted that curly tails seem to adjust quite well in developed areas)

A curly tails sloughs its skin as it grows, as with snakes and other reptilesCurly-tailed Lizard, Abaco Bahamas (Charles Skinner)


  • As mentioned above, for use in territorial posturing
  • In courtship displays by males to attract females (luckily a method not available to humans)
  • As a response to predators, confusing an attacker with movement at both ends
  • As a last resort, to detach to aid escape (the tail re-grows)
  • For fun and just because they can grow one and you cannot

Curly-tailed Lizard, Abaco Bahamas (Keith Salvesen)

Credits: all photos, Keith Salvesen except #2 & #6, Charles Skinner; BNT


American Oystercatcher, Abaco (Tom Sheley)


Abaco’s birding records compiled for over 20 years include 33 shorebird species. For a few, the islands and cays are a permanent residence; for many others they are winter quarters; some species are visitors transient in their migrations; a few are rare vagrants. The complete checklist of Abaco’s shorebirds is below, along with 3 links to specific posts. 


Willet in flight.Abaco Bahamas.6.13.Tom Sheley small2


I have divided the species into 3 categories: sandpipers & kin; plovers; and a catch-all ‘large shorebird’ group that includes one or two sandpipers. Of the 26 birds featured and shown in the main checklist below, 23 are ones you might reasonably hope or expect to encounter on Abaco, though some only if you are lucky or your field-craft is excellent. The others are the long-billed dowitcher, American avocet and Wilson’s phalarope (of which only one has ever been seen on Abaco, with a photo to prove it). Many of these are showcased in my book The Birds of Abaco


Black-necked Stilt, Gilpin Point, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)





Wilson's Plover chick.Delphi Club.Abaco Bahamas.Tom Sheley JPG copy


The codes tell you, for any particular bird, when you may see it (P = permanent, WR = winter resident, TR = transient, V = vagrant); whether it breeds (B) on Abaco; and your chance of seeing it, graded from easy (1) to vanishingly unlikely (5). 

  • Black-necked Stilt                             Himantopus mexicanus               PR B 3
  • American Avocet                               Recurvirostra americana             WR 4
  • American Oystercatcher                  Haematopus palliatus                  PR B 2
  • Black-bellied Plover                         Pluvialis squatarola                       WR 1
  • American Golden-Plover                Pluvialis dominica                          TR 4
  • Wilson’s Plover                                 Ochthodromus wilsonia                PR B 2
  • Semipalmated Plover                      Charadrius semipalmatus             WR 2
  • Piping Plover                                     Charadrius melodus                      WR 3
  • Killdeer                                               Charadrius vociferus                     WR 2
  • Spotted Sandpiper                            Actitis macularius                         WR 1
  • Solitary Sandpiper                            Tringa solitaria                               WR 2
  • Greater Yellowlegs                            Tringa melanoleuca                      WR 2
  • Willet                                                   Tringa semipalmata                      PR B 2
  • Lesser Yellowlegs                              Tringa flavipes                               WR 3
  • Ruddy Turnstone                              Arenaria interpres                          PR 2
  • Red Knot                                             Calidris canutus                            WR 3
  • Sanderling                                          Calidris alba                                   WR 1
  • Dunlin                                                 Calidris alpina                                WR 2
  • Least Sandpiper                                Calidris minutilla                           WR 2
  • White-rumped Sandpiper               Calidris fuscicollis                          TR 3
  • Semipalmated Sandpiper                Calidris pusilla                               TR 2
  • Western Sandpiper                           Calidris Mauri                                TR 2
  • Short-billed Dowitcher                    Limnodromus griseus                    WR 1
  • Long-billed Dowitcher                     Limnodromus scolopaceus          WR 4
  • Wilson’s Snipe                                   Gallinago delicata                          WR 3
  • Wilson’s Phalarope                           Phalaropus tricolor                        V 4

Semipalmated Sandpiper (juv), Abaco (Bruce Hallett)

For the sake of completeness, the other 7 species of shorebird recorded for Abaco – all transients or vagrants – are:

  • Upland Sandpiper                     Bartramia longicauda             TR 4
  • Whimbrel                                    Numenius phaeopus               TR 4
  • Hudsonian Godwit                   Limosa haemastica                    V5
  • Marbled Godwit                         Limosa fedoa                             V5
  • Buff-breasted Sandpiper          Tryngites subruficollis             V5
  • Pectoral Sandpiper                   Calidris melanotos                    TR 3
  • Stilt Sandpiper                           Calidris himantopus                 TR 3

Ruddy Turnstone Abaco Bahamas. 2.12.Tom Sheley copy 2

Photo Credits: Tom Sheley, Bruce Hallett, Keith Salvesen


Leucistic Turkey Vulture, Florida Keys 2 (Amy at PoweredbyBirds

Leucistic Turkey Vulture (Amy Evenstad,


And not just the tail*. Other parts of a bird. Sometimes most of a bird. More rarely, an entire bird. Whichever, a bird affected by leucism stands out from the crowd – out of the ordinary and therefore startling to the eye. I’d be very surprised if the fine turkey vulture in the header image didn’t make you look twice – maybe even to check if some devious photoshop trickery had been at work. Yet it’s just a normal TUVU in the Florida Keys, living a normal vulturine life.



A leucistic Western Spindalis discovered on Abaco by birder Keith KempWestern Spindalis (leucistic) Abaco 2 (Keith Kemp)Western Spindalis (leucistic) Abaco 1 (Keith Kemp)

For comparison – the real dealWestern Spindalis BH IMG_1711 copy


First, what it is not. It is not albinism, which results from diminished or lost melanin production that affects pigmentation. One characteristic of the condition is the tendency to pink eyes, which of course is seen in humans as well as animals and birds. Meet the perfect example…

Albino Rabbit (pinterest)


Put simply, melanin is only one of many ingredients of pigmentation. Leucism is caused through pigment loss involving many types of pigment, not just melanin. In birds this results in unnaturally light or white colouring of feathers that may be partial or entire. The eyes of a bird with leucism are unaffected. At one extreme, if all pigment cells fail, a white bird will result; at the other extreme, pigment defects cause patches and blotches of pale or white on the bird, often called a ‘pied’ effect. The condition can be inherited.

A mallard on Abaco. The species is known for its wide colour variations in both sexes. Sometimes the variations go beyond the usual range: this is a leucistic bird

Leucistic Mallard, Abaco (Nina Henry)

A leucistic common gallinule (moorhen) on AbacoLeucistic Common Gallinule (Moorhen) Abaco (Tony Hepburn)

Leucistic rock pigeon800px-Leucistic_Rock_Pigeon


I have found more examples of leucism in the ‘Bahama Duck’ than any other local species on Abaco. But there is also scope for confusion. First, here’s a pintail that is undoubtedly leucistic – note that the eyes and beak are unaffected by pigmentation deficiency:

Leucistic Bahama Pintail (Jim Edmonson)

But not all pale variants can be so confidently labelled. In the first picture, bottom right, there is an obviously an ‘odd’ pintail, silvery rather than ruddy brown like the rest of them (and yes, I do see the coot in the pack as well…). The second photo shows the same bird on dry land.

White-cheeked (Bahama) Pintail, Abaco 1 (Keith Salvesen) White-cheeked (Bahama) Pintail, Abaco 2 (Keith Salvesen)

This is known as a ‘silver pintail’. These are said to be a leuchistic variant, and they are stocked by poultry dealers as ornamental ducks at a higher price than the much-loved standard brown version. However this bird clearly retains the essential markings of a normal pintail that you might expect to be absent (at least in patches) in the ‘true’ leucistic bird. I’ve seen it described as a ‘gray morph’. I wonder where the line is drawn between a noticeable colour variant or morph in a bird; and an obviously pigment-abnormal, leucistic bird where the incidence and extent of the condition seems to be random.

A fine example of a ‘pied’ American Robin, an occasional visiting species on Abaco

Leucistic American Robin (Amy @ PoweredbyBirds)

Leucistic American Robin (Amy Evenstad,


PIPL are one of my bird species preoccupations, but until I checked them out I hadn’t imagined what a leucistic one would look like, or whether they had ever been recorded. I now have the answer… Leucistic Piping Plover (Audubon Alliance)leucistic plover 2leucistic plover 3

These photos of a leucistic female were featured by Audubon Alliance for Coastal Waterbirds, Audubon Connecticut. They were taken by Jim Panaccione, a Biological Science Technician at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge, Newburyport, Massachusetts. I hope he won’t mind their illustrative use here… Despite the theory that leucistic birds may find it hard to find a mate – and might even be attacked by its own species – this pair successfully nested.



*Obviously, it had to be ‘tail’ in the title to justify one of my clunky ‘jokes’ and an accompanying musical diversion. That’s just the way it is, I’m afraid. Bach’s well-known descending chord sequence of was of course shamelessly ripped off by ingeniously adapted by Procol Harum for ‘A Whiter Shade of Pale’, their first single in 1967. Relive a Summer of Love right here and now. 

Any fret-tweakers might like to see the sheet music of Bach’s Air for guitar – you could even play it on Air Guitar – which is relatively easy, being in C major. 

Air on a G String - J S Bach - Guitar Tab JPG


The best known commercial use of the tune was in the famed series of adverts that equated a mild cigar called Hamlet with happiness, accompanied by an excerpt from a jazzy version of Bach’s ‘Air on the G String’. Here is one of the best – and possibly the only advert to my knowledge to feature not one, but two excellent Sir Walter Raleigh jokes.

Credits: thanks to Amy Evenstad ( for use permission for her wonderful TUVU & AMRO photos; other photos by Keith Kemp & Bruce Hallett (Spindalis); Pinterest (rabbit); Nina Henry (mallard); Tony Hepburn (moorhen); Wiki (pigeon); Jim Edmonson (leucistic pintail); Keith Salvesen (silver pintail); Jim Panaccione / Audubon (piping plovers); Procol Harum, esp. Robin Trower for building a great career round being ‘reminiscent of Jimi Hendrix’; J.S. Bach for a nagging tune; Hamlet cigars for ingenuity & making me laugh


Black Witch moths Ascalapha odorata (Charles J Sharp)


Black Witch moths Ascalapha odorata are seriously bad news. Or wonderfully good news, depending where you are and who you talk to. First, let’s look at some of the local names for the creature, from which you will get a pretty clear idea of its somewhat negative folklore status, as well as its area of distribution. I do this not to demonstrate how effortlessly I can ‘borrow’ from Wiki, but rather to show how a simple moth can give rise to widespread superstition and even fear. 


  • Mariposa de la muerte (butterfly of death) – Mexico / Costa Rica
  • Pirpinto de la Yeta (something like ‘jinxing butterfly’) – Argentina
  • Tara Bruja (witch moth) – Venezuela)
  • Miquipapalotl (black death moth) – Mexico
  • Taparaco (something like ‘messenger in black’) – Peru
  • X-mahan-nah (‘invades your house’) – Mayan
  • Duppy Bat (lost soul / ghost /malevolent spirit) – Jamaica, Caribbean
  • Money Moth, Money Bat – Jamaica, Caribbean (including Bahamas)
  • Other names include Papillion-devil, La Sorcière Noire, Mourning moth, Sorrow moth.


These very large moths (wingspan up to 7″)  are nocturnal, with females larger than the males. The diagnostic markings are a spot on each forewing shaped like a number nine or a comma. This spot is often green with orange highlights (seen in the header image). The hind wings are decorated with distinctive ‘eyes’. The overall effect is an example of aposematism – coloration or markings that act as signals to warn or repel predators. The link above will take you to an excellent Wiki article on the topic, including the debate on the topic between Alfred Russel Wallace and  Charles Darwin 

The stripy larval caterpillar can grow up to 7 cm in length.

Black Witch moth larva - Ascalapha odorata - wiki


The moth is a migratory species, flying from (roughly speaking) South America as far north as Florida and Texas. The worst luck is believed to come from having one flutter into your house. Once inside, it will either bring bad luck to the house – or if there is already misfortune there, it will make it even worse. There are variations on this belief – e.g. that the more corners of a room the moth visits, the more doomed the household.

Black Witch moths Ascalapha odorata (Julia Gotz)


Fortunately yes, and it’s high time to dispel the gloom hereabouts. In some places (e.g. Hawaii), it is believed that when a loved one has died and an Ascalapha odorata is seen soon after, it is the person’s soul returning to say farewell. 

More promisingly still, in the Bahamas and wider Caribbean a far more positive and practical attitude is shown. If a Money Moth (or Money Bat) lands on you, you will receive some money. Or so it is said. I have never heard of this happening, but at least it is an optimistic approach to the moth. And Texas, thinking big, takes this several steps further to the prediction that you will win the lottery (I have a feeling this is a very modern theory).


Because at one time I had never heard of these moths, let alone seen one. Then one balmy Bahamian evening, at dusk, someone pointed out a large dark smudge on the door-frame. I only had a phone, and I had to use the flash. Here is the moth, with its evil little eyes shining in the bright light. Luckily, it was outside and not inside the building, which I hope diluted the malevolence radiation level. I didn’t realise the significance of the moth and the implications at the time of course, until I’d looked it up in Sibley’s indispensable ‘Compendium of Evil Moths‘**). It’s a poor photo, but it was useful for ID and I feel that taking a quick shot helped to ward off the worst of any unpleasantness. Though I remember that I fished very badly (even by my low standards and expectations) the following day…



Remember Silence of the Lambs? Well in the book, pupae of the Black Witch moth were placed in the mouths of victims by serial killer ‘Buffalo Bill’ as his calling card – though for the film, the moth species was changed to a Death’s-head Hawkmoth, as featured on the poster.

You can read about Hannibal Lecter’s link to moths, and learn how for the film the pupae were made from sweets (Gummi Bears ™) so as to be harmless if swallowed, HERE



Taking one’s life in one’s hands…?Black Witch moths Ascalapha odorata (Charles J Sharp)

Photo credits: Charles J Sharp (1, 5) OS; Wiki (2); Julia Gotz (‘juliatrees’) (3)*; Keith Salvesen (4)   Sources: Julia Gotz (‘juliatrees’), Terry Sovil, ,, Wiki, Sibley’s ‘Compendium of Evil Moths‘**

*Julie closed her blog, from which photo 3 comes, in 2010. I’m hoping she won’t mind my resurrection of her image to illustrate the species… Black Witch moth photos are quite rare online

**Out of print. Actually, never in print.


Day-flying_Bella_Moth_(Utetheisa_ornatrix) on Rattlebox Blossom (Bob Peterson, Florida)


The BELLA MOTH Utetheisa ornatrix is also known as the ‘ornate moth’ or ‘rattlebox moth’ (a tall spiky plant of the species Crotalaria). The italianate ‘bella’ signifies beauty and all the many synonyms for it. These moths come in colours ranging from pink to red or orange, and yellow to white. Some have vivid coloration, others are less bright. Their black dot markings are broadly similar. Moths are often thought of as creatures of the night, so daytime would not be an auspicious time for moth-hunting. In fact there are many moth species that are active during the day (‘diurnal’), and the Bella Moth is one of them. 

Bella Moth, Neem Farm, Abaco (Keith Salvesen) 1

Bella Moth, Neem Farm, Abaco (Keith Salvesen) 2


The bright coloration is (as in many species) nature’s way of saying ‘leave me alone’ and in particular, ‘I am very unpleasant to eat’. It is called APOSEMATISM.  The unpleasantness derives from toxins of the plants they feed on. This starts at the larval stage. The larvae feed on plants that contain poisonous alkaloids – in particular the yellow rattlebox plant – rendering them extremely unpalatable. both as larvae and adults. Bella adults in need of an alkaloid boost may cannibalise moth eggs, pupae or larvae to counter a deficiency. 

Ornate_moth_(Utetheisa_ornatrix) Charles J Sharp wiki


  • Sexual encounters are dictated by females, who compete with other females for males
  • Females seeking to mate always outnumber available males
  • A female bella will release powerful pheromones at dusk to lure males
  • Related females uniquely engage in collective pheromone release
  • This is termed “female pheromonal chorusing”, an irresistible draw for the males
  • Several males will give the female chemical ‘nuptial gifts’ of both poison and sperm
  • The female chooses the best of her various suitors and copulates with 4 or 5 of them
  • The whole process of multiple copulation may take up to 12 hours
  • In some way I don’t understand, she is then able to select her preferred sperm provider
  • The sperm of the other males is rejected and they go away disappointed
  • Humans: do not try any of this, whether at home, in the office, in public, or when driving

Utetheisa_ornatrix (Dumi, Jamaica)

Credits: Bob Peterson (1, 6); Keith Salvesen (2, 3); Charles J Sharp (4); open wings by Dumi (5)

Bella Moth (π Bob Peterson)


Peacock Flounder (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)



I featured the extraordinary, colour-transforming PEACOCK FLOUNDER Bothus lunatus a while back as part of a Bahamas Reef Fish series. These really are remarkable creatures, and I have decided to return to them mainly because of the wonderful illustrative photos I was able to incorporate. There are plenty of flounder facts too, but if you just enjoy the pictures and skip the blurb I’ll understand.

Peacock Flounder (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)


In the fish shown here, you’ll see that – surprisingly – both eyes are on the upper-side of the fish, above the rather grumpy mouth, whereas the head is horizontal to the ocean floor. Oddest of all, juveniles are constructed conventionally with bilateral eyes, and look like ‘normal’ fish rather than flatfish.

Peacock Flounder (Melinda Rogers / Dive Abaco)

As the fish matures, in some magic way the mechanics of which I can only guess at**, the right eye grows round to the topside and the flounder transforms from a ‘vertical’ fish to a flatfish. For this reason, the PF is known as a ‘left-eye’ flounder. Maybe in other flounder species in the world – the southern hemisphere maybe? – the eye that moves round to the upper-side is the left eye.

Peacock Flounder (Virginia Cooper / G B Scuba)

The eyes of this fish have another special trick up their sleeves (so to speak). They operate completely independently. Thus the creature can look left and right, or forwards and backwards, simultaneously. It’s an excellent system for detecting predators coming from any angle. It’s a superpower we might all benefit from.

Peacock Flounder (Melinda Rogers / Dive Abaco)


Yes they do indeed. If you have been admiring the fish shown so far, you’ll have noticed that the colour of each one differs from the others. In addition to the predator-protection that the eyes provide, the peacock flounder can make itself (near) invisible. They can rapidly change colour to match their surroundings. There are 3 reasons for this: to avoid / confuse predators; to conceal themselves on the sea-floor to catch passing prey; and, as dive expert Fred Riger has pointed out, “the male peacock flounder can, and does greatly intensify his colours to declare territory and attract females. When doing this the males will also signal with the left pectoral fin, sticking it straight up and waving it around.” 

The same fish, photographed over several minutes as it moves over the ocean floorPeacock Flounder (Wiki)

Matching the background happens as the fish swims, and in a few seconds. When they rest on the sea-floor, the camouflage may even become total. In #4 above you can just about make out the eyes. The whole effect is known as ‘cryptic coloration’ or CRYPSIS. In contrast, the image below shows just how adaptable the transformation can be. Note how the fish can even mimic the pinkish tinge of the sand perfectly. If threatened, the fish will bury itself in the sand, with just its eyes showing.

Peacock Flounder (Melinda Rogers / Dive Abaco)


It’s complicated! A simple answer is: a mix of hormones, pigment-cells and vision, all coordinating rapidly. The colour change works in two ways: pigments are selectively released to the skin cells; and other pigments can be selectively suppressed. An analogy might be image manipulation using variations in brightness, saturation etc. Not convinced? Then watch this short video and prepare to be impressed. Astonished, even.


As with many (all?) superpowers, there is usually some kryptonite-style flaw. A flounder with a damaged eye, or one temporarily covered (by sand, for example) will have difficulty in changing colour – possibly at all, or at any rate with the swiftness it needs to have. 

Peacock Flounder (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)


Take a look at the fish above with its top fin raised. It’s a ‘ready’ signal in a harem. Male flounders have a defined and defended territory within which live up to 6 females – a so-called ‘harem.’ I can do no better than borrow the description of the rituals from an article derived from scientific papers by Konstantinou, 1994Miller, et al., 1991 in the website…ounts/Bothus_lunatus To which I can only add, ’15 seconds, eh?’

Peacock Flounder (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

“Mating activities usually begin just before dusk. At this time, a male and a female approach each other with the ocular pectoral fin erect. The two fish arch their backs and touch snouts. After this interaction the female swims away, and the male sometimes follows, approaching the female again from the left side. At this point the male pectoral fin is erect and the female pectoral fin moves up and down, possibly signalling willingness to mate. The male then positions himself underneath the female and mating begins. This process consists of a mating rise, during which the female and male rise in the water column together. On average, these rises last about 15 seconds. At the highest point of this rise, usually around 2 m above the substrate, gametes from both fish are simultaneously released, producing a cloud of sperm and eggs. Once the couple returns from the rise, the male “checks” to make sure mating was successful, and the pair separates quickly, swimming away from each other in opposite directions. Not all mating rises are successful, and the process of “checking” is thus important. The exact purpose of the mating rise in these flounders unknown; possible reasons for rising include better dispersal of gametes and predator avoidance.” 

Peacock Flounder – Kim Rody ArtPeacock Flounder (Kim Rody Art))

**This may in fact have been through sheer laziness

Credits: Melinda Riger & Virginia Cooper / Grand Bahama Scuba; Melinda Rogers / Dive Abaco; Adam Rees / Scuba Works; Kim Rody;; magpie pickings and other credits in the text

Peacock Flounder (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)


Gull-billed Tern, Abaco (Alex Hughes) 01


The gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica had a name upgrade from Sterna nilotica some years ago, and was awarded the honour of its own genus. 

Gull-billed Tern, Abaco (Alex Hughes) 04

Let’s be clear at the outset: there’s no such thing as a tern-billed gull. Which fortunately lessens the scope for species confusion. 

Gull-billed Tern, Abaco (Alex Hughes) 05

There are 12 species of tern recorded for Abaco. Only one, the royal tern, is a permanent resident. There is one winter resident, the Forster’s tern and there a 6 summer resident terns of varying degrees of commonness. The other 4 are transient or vagrant, and probably definitely not worth making a special trip to Abaco to find. The G-BT is designated SB3, a summer breeding resident that is generally uncommon, though may be more common in particular areas.


TERN TABLE**Tern Species Abaco**I know! Too tempting…


Gull-billed Tern, Abaco (Alex Hughes) 11

The bird gets its name from it short, thick gull-like bill. It’s quite large in tern terms, with a wingspan that may reach 3 foot. They lose their smart black caps in winter.

Gull-billed Tern, Abaco (Alex Hughes) 06

There are 6 species of G-BT worldwide, and it is found in every continent. While many terns plunge-dive for fish, the G-BT mostly feeds on insects in flight, and will also go after birds eggs and chicks. Small mammals and amphibians are also on the menu. The header image shows a G-BT with a small crab. I always imagined that they must eat fish. Surely they do? But I have looked at dozens of images online to find one noshing on a fish, with no success.

Gull-billed Tern, Abaco (Alex Hughes) 02

All photos were taken by Alex Hughes, a contributor to THE BIRDS OF ABACO, when he spent some time on Abaco some years ago in connection with the conservation of the Abaco Parrot and the preservation of the habitat integrity of their nesting area in the Abaco National Park

Gull-billed Tern, Abaco (Alex Hughes) 12



The drastic effects of Hurricane Dorian on Abaco’s birdlife continue, with recent reports suggesting that all species remain affected, and some severely so. However there are signs of a slow improvement, and this good news includes the two hummingbird species, the endemic Bahama Woodstar and the Cuban Emerald. A couple of recent posts on FB indicate that sightings of both these species have been a very welcome surprise. So, a good time to write about them and to show their beauty.

Cuban Emerald (male) Abaco (Charlie Skinner)

The subject matter of this post is not as indelicate as the title might imply; nor is it a ‘hands-on’ practical guide for intimate examinations of tiny birds. In particular it does not publicise some recently discovered louche activity involving unfeasibly large motor vehicles. It’s all about plumage and recognition. And there are only two species – and two genders for each one – to wrestle with. So here are the adult male and female Bahama Woodstars and Cuban Emeralds in all their glory…

BAHAMA WOODSTAR (Calliphlox evelynae)

Bahama Woodstar (male), Abaco (Bruce Hallett)
Bahama Woodstar male, Abaco Bahamas (Tom Sheley)
Bahama Woodstar (female), Bahama Palm Shores, Abaco (Tara Lavallee)
Bahama Woodstar (female), Abaco (Tom Sheley)


CUBAN EMERALD (Chlorostilbon ricordii)

Cuban Emerald (male), Delphi Club, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)
Cuban Emerald (male), Delphi, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)
Cuban Emerald (male), Delphi, Abaco (Peter Mantle)

Cuban Emerald (female), Delphi Club, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)
Cuban Emerald (female), Delphi, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)
Cuban Emerald (female) Gilpin Point, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)
Cuban Emerald (female) Gilpin Point, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)

And finally, a brilliant Woodstar photo taken by Tom Sheley, birdman and generous fishing partner, that I spans the boundary between wildlife photography and art. 

Bahama Woodstar female. Abaco Bahamas . Tom Sheley

Header Image: Keith Salvesen