HOGFISH: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (31)


Hogfish at cleaning station ©Melinda Riger @GB Scuba

HOGFISH: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (31)

Hogfish. Fisherman’s delight… getting ‘high on the hog’. This wrasse species Lachnolaimus maximus is a reef denizen, especially where gorgonians are found. It has the distinction of being the only known member of its genus, and because it is IUCN listed as vulnerable, there are strict regulations governing bag, size, and gear limits to protect the species from overfishing.

Hogfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

The hogfish gets its name from its long ‘pig-like’ snout, coupled with its rootling behaviour on the sea floor for crustacean prey.

Hogfish ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy ed Hogfish foraging ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

GENDER STUDIES: IT’S COMPLICATED

The hogfish is a sequential hermaphrodite, meaning it changes sex during different life stages. Juvenile hogfish are female, but mature into males at around 3 years old.

Hogfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B ScubaHogfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

Hogfish social groups are organized into harems, where one male will protect a group of females in his territory and mate with them.

Hogfish ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba Hogfish with isopods ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

CAUTIONARY NOTE Capt. Rick, a loyal follower, has made another of his pertinent comments: “A bit of caution is necessary here! There is some history in the Bahamas of mild to severe Ciguatera poisoning from Hogs. Our M.O. was to only eat Hogs no larger than 5 or 6 lbs. Temporary or permanent blindness, paralysis, and even death is possible with bigger Hogs”. Ciguatera is also a problem with, for example, ‘cuda on Abaco. Those caught on the Marls (west) side are ok to eat; those from the east side have to be treated with circumspection…

Hogfish (with isopod above eye) ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Credits: all fantastic fish fotos – Melinda Riger at Grand Bahama Scuba

JACKKNIFE FISH: BAHAMAS REEF FISH (30)


Jackknife Fish ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

JACKKNIFE FISH: BAHAMAS REEF FISH 30

The rather uncomfortably ‘double-k’  Jackknife fish is one of 3 types of similar drumfish subspecies of Equetus found in Bahamas waters. The others are the High Hat and the SPOTTED DRUMFISH – the first fish featured in this series. Each of these drumfish species has juveniles that are elegant and delicate, becoming more conventionally fishlike as they grow to adulthood, as the final image shows.

Jackknife fish (juv) ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

I always want to stick a hyphen in to separate each k: jack-knife fish. I think it’s an English thing. I have seen, at the other extreme, ‘jack-knifefish’, which looks most weird of all. Checking online, jackknife fish wins by a distance as the correct spelling. 

Jackknife Fish (juv) ©Melinda Riger @GB Scuba

These little fish, typically between 6 and 9 inches, inhabit the coral reefs of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and the Bahamas. Juveniles eat plankton and similar organism, graduating to small crabs and shrimps as adults.

Jackknife Fish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

A FULLY GROWN JACKKNIFE FISH (NOAA)Jackknife fish adult_NOAA_Photo_Library

Like other drumfishes, the jackknife can produce ‘croaking’ or ‘drumming sounds. This involves the fish beating its abdominal muscles against its swim bladder. There’s a lot more to it than my rather simplistic summary, but it’s probably as much as anyone needs or wants to know… The primary reason is believed to relate to mating. Other reasons include ‘low-level aggression’, and keeping in touch with each other in turbid waters.  I prefer the unscientific theory that sheer happiness makes them croak. Here’s a short video of a happy juvenile Jack knife fish (that’s yet another spelling variant…)

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Credits: Melinda Riger / GrandBahama Scuba; NOAA

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH) (10): FLYING GURNARD


Flying Gurnard (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH) 10: FLYING GURNARD

Imagine that you are swimming along resplendent in your snorkelling gear (me) – or in scuba gear for the advanced swimmer (you). There, below you, camouflaged against the sea bottom is a fish. A strange-shaped brown sort of creature with odd side fins. As it progresses over the gravelly sand, your immediate reaction is ‘what the…?’ Its fins seem to be turning into… wings. Like this:

Flying Gurnard (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)Flying Gurnard (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)Flying Gurnard (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

Yes, it’s a flying gurnard. Unlike flying fish, it can’t actually fly through the air. But once its wings are fully spread, it certainly looks as though it could.

Flying Gurnard (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)Flying Gurnard (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

WHAT’S THE POINT OF THE WINGS IF THE THING CAN’T FLY?

This gurnard species usually gets around using its ventral fins as ‘legs’, with the pectoral fins (‘wings’) close to the body. There seem to be several possible reasons for possessing the ‘sudden-deployment-of-flashy-wings’ superpower. 

  • It surprises and deters predators by movement, turning prospective prey into an apparently different creature
  • Bright or lurid colouring may be a deterrent warning of a foul-tasting or poisonous species  (APOSEMATISM)
  • A creature may actually be harmless and even tasty (as here) but may appear to be unpalateable or poisonous (BATESIAN MIMICRY)
  • In any event, the wings enable the fish to take off from the sea bottom and travel faster by ‘flying’ thought the water to escape a predator

Dactylopterus_volitans Flying Gurnard (cralize wiki)

I had a quick look to see how  scientists in history had depicted this extraordinary fish. The earliest illustration I could find was taken from “Allgemeine Naturgeschichte der Fische (General natural history of fishes),” a 12-volume encyclopedia by author/illustrator Marcus Elieser Bloch (1723-1799), which described all fish species then known to science (and 267 previously unknown) (© AMNH\D. Finnin) sourced from ‘Hyperallergic’
Flying Gurnard

Here’s a short video of a flying gurnard on the move, from ‘Sia Big Fish’

Credits: All main images Adam Rees / Scuba Works with many thanks, except final one ‘cralize wiki’; Hyperallergic for the historic image; Sia Big Fish for the video

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH) (9): THE HARLEQUIN BASS


Harlequin Bass ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH) (9): THE HARLEQUIN BASS

I’m conscious of being rather unfair on this pretty dwarf bass species by including it in the WTF? series. The usual denizen of the series is a fish so strange that one’s immediate instinct is to yell into one’s facemask, “WTF?”. BATFISH or FROGFISH or GUITARFISH and their bizarre ilk. So with apologies to this species for its somewhat harsh classification, here are some quite flattering photos of it to make up for any hurt feelings.

Harlequin Bass Fish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copyHarlequin Bass (jpc what'sthatfish)

The Harlequin Bass Serranus tigrinus has unusually striking body markings and a rather endearing spotty tailfin. They are hardy creatures and I note that they are recommended aquarium fish “and make a great candidate for beginners”, though there are warnings that they are “semi-aggressive”. NB they are only a few inches long, so no need to panic.

Harlequin_Bass_Serranus_tigrinus wikiHarlequin_Bass_(Serranus_tigrinus) wiki

If you are still not confident that you can ID one in the wild, here is a short video… Actually I’m really including it to show how these fish swim around. And next time, I promise a truly eye-watering WTF? fish from Bahamian waters, though its camouflage is so good that you may never notice it…

Credits: Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba (1, 2); jpc/ what’s that fish; wiki

REMARKABLE REEF CREATURES TO ADMIRE


Octopus (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)

REMARKABLE REEF CREATURES TO ADMIRE

Here is a small collection of recent photographs from Adam Rees of Scuba Works. Three OCTOPUSES, an astounding FROGFISH,  a SEAHORSE, a MANTIS SHRIMP at close quarters, and a wonderful HAWKSBILL TURTLE. Clicking on a link will take you to a post with more photos and information about each creature. If these images don’t make you want to scuba then… what will?

Frogfish Hunting (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)Seahorse (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)Mantis Shrimp (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)Octopus 3 (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)Hawksbill Turtle (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)Octopus 2 (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)

All photos Adam Rees / Scuba Works, with thanks for use permission

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH) (7): THE SOAPFISH


Soapfish ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH) (7): THE SOAPFISH 

The WTF? series features some of the stranger fish that inhabit the waters of the Bahamas. Ones that, were you to encounter one on the reef, might make you exclaim “WTF?”. The soapfish Rypticus belongs in the same family as grouper and sea bass. Within the soapfish genus there are quite a few varieties in different shapes, sizes and colours that include several mottled, freckled, spotted and generally blotchy fish.  This post features one (or two) of them! Sorry to be lame here and lacking in authority, but having looked carefully online at images of several types of soapfish, I reckon there are 3 candidates. Freckled, I think these are. Enlightenment would be welcome!

Soapfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Rypticus tend to inhabit shallower tropical and sub-tropical waters. They are mainly nocturnal in their habits, feeding at night on small fish, crustaceans and molluscs. The WTF? factor arises from the creature’s oddly truncated shape. If you cover the back end of the fish in the image below with your hand, you might expect the fish to be about the same length again. But no, there’s just the tail to come. It looks a bit cut in half.

Soapfish © Melinda Riger @GB Scuba

DOES THE SOAPFISH HAVE ANY AWESOME POWERS?

I’m glad you asked because in fact it has two. First, these fish respond to threats by secreting large amounts of toxic mucus from their skins. This acts as a defensive barrier to repel predators. Secondly, female soapfish are able to change sex to male. This is not uncommon among fish, and in some (e.g. Clownfish) the change works the other way, male to female. I read a lot about chemicals and gonads in this connection, then decided to spare you the details. So basically, it’s toxic slimy coats and female gender realignment.

Soapfish ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

Credits: all photos, Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba

 

“CLEANING UP”: HOW TINY REEF FISH HELP LARGE FISH


Black Grouper - Arnold - Cleaning Station - Neon Gobies ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

“CLEANING UP”: HOW TINY REEF FISH HELP LARGE FISH

A while ago now, I wrote a detailed post about so-called fish ‘cleaning stations’ – the special spots on the reef where large fish can go to have small fish buff up their scales and floss their teeth. You can read all about it HERE.

I have accumulated a number of new photos from expert scuba diver and underwater photographer Melinda Riger that demonstrate this phenomenon. A big fish with a normally voracious appetite will patiently wait while gobies and other small fry go about their work. This often involves actually entering the mouth of the (as it must seem to them) monster to pick the insides and the teeth clean. There is an extraordinary understanding and trust between the species that means during the operation, the little fish are perfectly safe. Here are some examples, of which the very recent header image of a grouper named Arnold is quite outstanding.

Tiger Grouper + cleaner goby ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copyGrouper, Black at cleaning station ©Melinda Riger @G B Scuba copy Tiger Grouper at cleaning station ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy Tiger Grouper being cleaned ©Melinda Riger @G B Scuba copy

It is not just gobies that attend the fish. Various species of shrimp also volunteer for the job.

Tiger Grouper with cleaning shrimps and goby ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy Grouper being cleaned ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

Groupers are not the only species to make use of cleaning stations. Here is a dog snapper at the same cleaning station as the grouper in the header image. Below is a stingray being attended to.

Dog Snapper at cleaning station ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

Southern Stingray with cleaning gobiesStingray, Southern with cleaning gobies ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

GRAMMATICAL DIGRESSION There is this ‘thing’ about the correct use of the words ‘fish’ and ‘fishes’ in the plural form. The basic principle is simple: ‘fish’ where you are referring to several of the same species; ‘fishes’ where more than one species is involved. I don’t care. My policy is to use ‘fish’ as the plural on all occasions, so I don’t have to think about it. Pedants, look away now.

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TAKEN TO THE CLEANERS

BANDED CORAL (‘CLEANER’) SHRIMP

TIGER GROUPER

BLACK GROUPER

All photos: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba