RUDDY TURNSTONES ON ABACO: BEACH NOSHING


Ruddy Turnstones, Delphi Beach Abaco Bahamas (Keith Salvesen)

RUDDY TURNSTONES ON ABACO: BEACH NOSHING

Some birds are named for the sounds they make (bobwhite, chuck-will’s-widow, pewee, killdeer). Some are named for their appearance (yellow-rumped warbler, painted bunting). And some are named for what they do (shearwater, sapsucker – but definitely NOT killdeer). The ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres is in the last two of these categories: it looks ruddy and it literally turns stones to get at the goodies underneath.

Ruddy Turnstones, Delphi Beach Abaco Bahamas (Keith Salvesen)

And they don’t just turn stones to look for food. Someone with a lot of patience has defined 6 specific methods by which a turnstone forages for food:

  • Turning stones by flicking them with its beak
  • Digging using its beak to flick away sand or earth (see video below)
  • Routing around in piles of seaweed to expose food under it
  • Surface pecking with short, shallow pecks for food just below the surface
  • Probing by simply sticking its beak deep into soft sand or ground
  • Hammer-probing to crack open a shell and get at the occupant

Ruddy Turnstones, Delphi Beach Abaco Bahamas (Keith Salvesen)

In these photos taken on a rather gloomy day on the Delphi beach, a combination of mainly digging and routing is going on. Note the sandy beak of the RUTU below, right up to the hilt.

Ruddy Turnstones, Delphi Beach Abaco Bahamas (Keith Salvesen)Ruddy Turnstones, Delphi Beach Abaco Bahamas (Keith Salvesen)

This short video shows how effective the RUTU method is. It was fascinating to watch the team work their way through and around the piles of weed on the beach, flicking sand vigorously in their quest for sandflies or whatever. Watch the sand fly! Pity it wasn’t a sunny day – the photos might have looked a bit more cheerful… 

 

All photos Keith Salvesen

SEABIRDS, SHOREBIRDS & WADERS: 30 WAYS TO TELL THEM APART


Reddish Egret, Crossing Rocks, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)12

Reddish Egret male in breeding plumage, Crossing Rocks, Abaco

SEABIRDS, SHOREBIRDS & WADERS: 30 WAYS TO TELL THEM APART

This weekend is Wader Conservation World Watch weekend, promoted by WADER QUEST. This is the perfect moment to help with the vexed question: “See that bird? Over there. No, THERE! Is it a seabird, shorebird or a wader?” 

Publication1

There is plenty of scope for confusion, since in practice there is a degree of informal category overlap and even some variation between the various bird guides. And after all, shorebirds may wade. And wading birds may be found on the shore*. Here is a reminder of 30 infallible rules to sort out which is which, courtesy of the estimable BEACH CHAIR SCIENTIST blog. 

*STOP PRESS Rick Simpson of Wader Quest has kindly added a comment pointing out the marked difference in the categorisation on either side of the Atlantic: “What you in the USA call shorebirds we here in the UK call waders (peeps, sandpipers, plovers oystercatchers etc – but not skimmers). Shorebirds to us can be any bird that lives on a shore, ie egret, herons, gulls. To add more confusion some seabirds such as Gulls, Skuas (Jaegers) Terns and Auks are also all in the group called Charadriiformes, not just the waders… er I mean shorebirds, or do I? [So] should any of you decide to participate in our world watch it is your shorebirds (but not skimmers) that we are interested in and we call them waders. Anyone want to know the rules of cricket? It is easier to explain!”

magnificent-frigatebird

10 CHARACTERISTICS OF SEABIRDS 

Ring-billed gull, AbacoRing-billed Gull (Nina Henry : DCB)

Examples include frigatebirds, petrels, shearwaters, gulls, terns and tropicbirds

1. Seabirds are pelagic, spending most of their lives far out at sea.
2. Seabirds move toward to coastal areas to breed or raise young for a minimal amount of time.
3. Seabirds are light on their undersides and dark on top (an adaptation known as countershading).
4. Seabirds have more feathers than other types of birds for more insulation and waterproofing.
5. Seabirds have flexible webbed feet to help gain traction as they take off for flight from the sea.
6. Some seabirds have unusually sharp claws used to help grasp fish under the water.
7. Some larger seabirds (e.g. albatross) have long, slim wings allowing them to soar for long distances without getting tired.
8. Some smaller seabirds have short wings for manoeuvering at the surface of the water.
9. Seabirds have specialized glands to be able to drink the saltwater and excrete salts.
10. Some seabirds (e.g. gannets) have a head shape that is usually tapered for more efficiency in plunge diving.

piping-plover

10 CHARACTERISTICS OF SHOREBIRDS 

Ruddy Turnstone, AbacoRuddy Turnstone Abaco Bahamas. 2.12.Tom Sheley copy 2

Examples include oystercatchers, turnstones, knots, plovers and sandpipers

1. Shorebirds have long legs, pointed beaks, and long pointed wings.
2. Most shorebirds are migratory (impressively some shorebirds fly non-stop for 3-4 days, equivalent to a human running continuous 4-minute miles for 60 hours).
3. Shorebirds wade close to the shore and poke their bills into the ground in search of food.
4. Shorebirds are small to medium size wading birds.
5. Shorebirds tend to frequent wetlands and marshes and are biological indicators of these environmentally sensitive lands.
6. Shore birds are of the order Charadriiformes.
7. Shorebirds are very well camouflaged for their environment and their appearance may vary from place to place as plumage (feather colors) are gained or lost during breeding.
8. Shorebirds typically range in size from 0.06 to 4.4 pounds.
9. Oystercatchers have a unique triangular bill that is a cross between a knife and a chisel.
10. The black skimmer is the only native bird in North America with its lower mandible larger than the upper mandible, which helps the bird gather fish as it skims the ocean surface.

roseate-spoonbill

10 CHARACTERISTICS OF WADING BIRDS 

Snowy Egret, Abaco
Snowy Egret ?NP_ACH1409 copy

Examples include egrets, herons, flamingos, ibis, rails, and spoonbills

1. Wading birds are found in freshwater or saltwater on every continent except Antarctica.
2. Wading birds have long, skinny legs and toes which help them keep their balance in wet areas where water currents may be present or muddy ground is unstable. Also, longer legs make it easier for them to search for food (forage) in deeper waters.
3. Wading birds have long bills with pointed or rounded tips (depending on what is more efficient for the types of food the bird consumes).
4. Wading birds have long, flexible necks that can change shape drastically in seconds, an adaptation for proficient hunting.
5. Herons have sophisticated and beautiful plumes (‘bridal plumage’) during the breeding season, while smaller waders such as rails are much more camouflaged.
6. Wading birds may stand motionless for long periods of time waiting for prey to come within reach.
7. When moving, their steps may be slow and deliberate to not scare prey, and freeze postures are common when these birds feel threatened.
8. Adult wading birds are quiet as an essential tool for hunting. Wading birds may be vocal while nestling or while in flocks together.
9. Many wading birds form communal roosts and breeding rookeries, even mixing flocks of different species of wading birds or waterfowl.
10. Wading birds fully extend their legs to the rear when flying. The neck may be extended or not while in flight, depending on the species.

Green Heron, AbacoGreen Heron, Gilpin Point, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)11

These lists were handily put together in useful chart formseabird shorebird wading bird chart ©beachchairscientist

Credits: Table – ©Beach Chair Scientist; Pics – Nina Henry (RBG), Tom Sheley (RUTU), Tony Hepburn (SNEG), Keith Salvesen (REEG & GRHE) ; Cartoons – Birdorable

WORLD SHOREBIRDS DAY: ABACO’S COMPLETE CHECKLIST


American Oystercatcher, Abaco (Tom Sheley)

WORLD SHOREBIRDS DAY: ABACO’S COMPLETE CHECKLIST

Abaco is home to 33 shorebird species. For a few, the islands are a permanent residence; for many others they are winter quarters; and some species are visitors transient in their migrations, or rare vagrants. Last year I produced 3 posts with plenty of photos showcasing 26 of the species, the remaining 7 all being transients or vagrants. 

Willet in flight.Abaco Bahamas.6.13.Tom Sheley small2

I divided the species into 3 categories: sandpipers & kin; plovers; and a catch-all ‘large shorebird’ group that included one or two sandpipers. Of the 26 birds featured and shown in the main checklist below, 23 are ones you might reasonably hope or expect to encounter on Abaco, though some only if you are lucky or your field-craft is excellent. The others are the long-billed dowitcher, American avocet and Wilson’s phalarope (of which only one has ever been seen on Abaco, with a photo to prove it)

Black-necked Stilt, Gilpin Point, Abaco (Keith Salvesen)

CLICK A LINK TO INVESTIGATE

LARGE SHOREBIRDS

SANDPIPERS

PLOVERS

Wilson's Plover chick.Delphi Club.Abaco Bahamas.Tom Sheley JPG copy

THE COMPLETE CHECKLIST

The codes tell you, for any particular bird, when you may see it (P = permanent, WR = winter resident, TR = transient, V = vagrant); whether it breeds (B) on Abaco; and your chance of seeing it, graded from easy (1) to vanishingly unlikely (5). 

  • Black-necked Stilt                             Himantopus mexicanus                PR B 3
  • American Avocet                               Recurvirostra americana             WR 4
  • American Oystercatcher                  Haematopus palliatus                   PR B 2
  • Black-bellied Plover                         Pluvialis squatarola                       WR 1
  • American Golden-Plover                Pluvialis dominica                           TR 4
  • Wilson’s Plover                                 Ochthodromus wilsonia                 PR B 2
  • Semipalmated Plover                      Charadrius semipalmatus             WR 2
  • Piping Plover                                     Charadrius melodus                       WR 3
  • Killdeer                                               Charadrius vociferus                     WR 2
  • Spotted Sandpiper                            Actitis macularius                          WR 1
  • Solitary Sandpiper                            Tringa solitaria                              WR 2
  • Greater Yellowlegs                            Tringa melanoleuca                      WR 2
  • Willet                                                   Tringa semipalmata                     PR B 2
  • Lesser Yellowlegs                              Tringa flavipes                               WR 3
  • Ruddy Turnstone                              Arenaria interpres                        PR 2
  • Red Knot                                             Calidris canutus                            WR 3
  • Sanderling                                          Calidris alba                                   WR 1
  • Dunlin                                                 Calidris alpina                               WR 2
  • Least Sandpiper                                Calidris minutilla                          WR 2
  • White-rumped Sandpiper               Calidris fuscicollis                          TR 3
  • Semipalmated Sandpiper                Calidris pusilla                               TR 2
  • Western Sandpiper                           Calidris Mauri                                TR 2
  • Short-billed Dowitcher                    Limnodromus griseus                    WR 1
  • Long-billed Dowitcher                     Limnodromus scolopaceus           WR 4
  • Wilson’s Snipe                                   Gallinago delicata                          WR 3
  • Wilson’s Phalarope                           Phalaropus tricolor                        V 4

Semipalmated Sandpiper (juv), Abaco (Bruce Hallett)

For the sake of completeness, the other 7 species of shorebird recorded for Abaco – all transients or vagrants – are:

  • Upland Sandpiper                     Bartramia longicauda             TR 4
  • Whimbrel                                    Numenius phaeopus                 TR 4
  • Hudsonian Godwit                   Limosa haemastica                    V5
  • Marbled Godwit                         Limosa fedoa                              V5
  • Buff-breasted Sandpiper          Tryngites subruficollis             V5
  • Pectoral Sandpiper                   Calidris melanotos                    TR 3
  • Stilt Sandpiper                           Calidris himantopus                 TR 3

Please excuse the wonky column formatting, an aspect of listing that WordPress doesn’t seem to cater for…

Ruddy Turnstone Abaco Bahamas. 2.12.Tom Sheley copy 2

Photo Credits: Tom Sheley, Bruce Hallett, Keith Salvesen

WORLD SHOREBIRDS DAY – ABACO’S 33 SHOREBIRD SPECIES (2) – SANDPIPERS


Ruddy Turnstone winter plumage.Abaco Bahamas.2.13.Tom Sheley e

WORLD SHOREBIRDS DAY: ABACO’S 33 SHOREBIRD SPECIES (2)

Yesterday I featured 8 of the larger, longer-billed species among Abaco’s 33 shorebirds. Plus one cute Wilson’s Plover chick as page-bait! A number of those are classified as sandpipers. To see them, click HERE. Today it’s the turn of the smaller sandpiper species, little birds with long beaks for their size that in general help differentiate them from the stubby-beaked plover species. To recap, here is  the main Abaco shorebird checklist of 26 species (birds previously featured in bold):

The codes will tell you, for any particular bird, when you may see it (P = permanent, WR = winter resident, TR = transient, V = vagrant); whether it breeds (B) on Abaco; and your chance of seeing it, graded from easy (1) to vanishingly unlikely (5).

  • Black-necked Stilt                         Himantopus mexicanus              PR B 3
  • American Avocet                           Recurvirostra americana           WR 4
  • American Oystercatcher          Haematopus palliatus                 PR B 2
  • Black-bellied Plover                          Pluvialis squatarola                     WR 1
  • American Golden-Plover                 Pluvialis dominica                        TR 4
  • Wilson’s Plover                                  Ochthodromus wilsonia              PR B 2
  • Semipalmated Plover                        Charadrius semipalmatus         WR 2
  • Piping Plover                                      Charadrius melodus                      WR 3
  • Killdeer                                                 Charadrius vociferus                    WR 2
  • Spotted Sandpiper                              Actitis macularius                         WR 1
  • Solitary Sandpiper                             Tringa solitaria                              WR 2
  • Greater Yellowlegs                       Tringa melanoleuca                     WR 2
  • Willet                                                   Tringa semipalmata                     PR B 2
  • Lesser Yellowlegs                          Tringa flavipes                               WR 3
  • Ruddy Turnstone                                Arenaria interpres                        PR 2
  • Red Knot                                               Calidris canutus                              WR 3
  • Sanderling                                            Calidris alba                                     WR 1
  • Dunlin                                                 Calidris alpina                                 WR 2
  • Least Sandpiper                                  Calidris minutilla                           WR 2
  • White-rumped Sandpiper                 Calidris fuscicollis                          TR 3
  • Semipalmated Sandpiper                  Calidris pusilla                                TR 2
  • Western Sandpiper                             Calidris Mauri                                 TR 2
  • Short-billed Dowitcher               Limnodromus griseus                   WR 1
  • Long-billed Dowitcher                Limnodromus scolopaceus         WR 4
  • Wilson’s Snipe                                 Gallinago delicata                         WR 3
  • Wilson’s Phalarope                            Phalaropus tricolor                        V 4

The other 7 species of shorebird recorded for Abaco – all transients or vagrants – are: Upland Sandpiper TR 4, Whimbrel  TR 4, Hudsonian Godwit V5, Marbled Godwit V5, Buff-breasted Sandpiper V5, Pectoral Sandpiper  TR 3, Stilt Sandpiper TR 3

SANDPIPERS

Of the sandpiper species shown below, 9 of the 10 are ones that, at the right time and in the right place, you may see on Abaco. The tenth, the Wilson’s Phalarope, is the first specimen ever recorded for Abaco and as far as is known this is the only photo of it (props to Woody Bracey for this accomplished ‘get’). Again, some of the birds shown below were photographed on the Delphi Club beach.

SPOTTED SANDPIPER Actitis macularius   WR 1Spotted Sandpiper.Abaco Bahamas - Tom Sheley

SOLITARY SANDPIPER Tringa solitaria  WR 2Solitary Sandpiper, Petrie Island D G E Robertson Wiki

RUDDY TURNSTONE  Arenaria interpres  PR 2Ruddy Turnstone Abaco Bahamas. 2.12.Tom Sheley copy 2

RED KNOT Calidris canutus (non-breeding plumage)  WR 3Red Knot,  Green Turtle Cay, Abaco - Becky Marvil

SANDERLING  Calidris alba  WR 1Sanderling, Abaco -  Craig Nash

LEAST SANDPIPER  Calidris minutilla  WR 2Least Sandpiper, Delphi Club Beach, Abaco - Keith Salvesen

WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER  Calidris fuscicollis  TR 3White-rumped Sandpiper, Abaco - Tony Hepburn

SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER   Calidris pusilla  TR 2Semipalmated Sandpiper, Abaco (juv) Bruce Hallett

WESTERN SANDPIPER  Calidris Mauri  TR 2Western Sandpiper, Abaco (Bruce Hallett)

WILSON’S PHALAROPE Phalaropus tricolor  V 4 Wilson's Phalarope, Abaco - Woody Bracey

RELATED POSTS

RUDDY TURNSTONES

LEAST SANDPIPERS

Photo Credits: Tom Sheley, D Robertson, Becky Marvil, Craig Nash, RH, Tony Hepburn, Bruce Hallett, Woody Bracey

RUDDY TURNSTONES ON THE BEACH IN ABACO


 Ruddy Turnstones at Delphi, Abaco 14

RUDDY TURNSTONES ON THE BEACH IN ABACO

Ruddy Turnstones Arenaria interpres are well-known shore birds around the world. They used to be classified as plovers, but are now counted with sanderling. Fortunately they are distinctive enough not to be confusable with the many other species of shore bird with which they mix.Ruddy Turnstones at Delphi, Abaco 13

Their foraging methods are classified into 6 broad categories, though I imagine that if peckish, they may opt for all of these in the one feeding session.

  • Routing — rootling through piles of seaweed by flicking, ‘bulldozing’, and pecking it to expose small crustaceans or gastropod molluscs hidden underneath.
  • Turning stones — living up to its name name, flicking stones with its bill to uncover hidden snaily and shrimpy creatures.
  • Digging —  using small flicks of the bill to make holes in sand or mud and then gobbling up the prey revealed.
  • Probing — inserting the bill right into the ground to get at concealed gastropods.
  • Hammering — cracking open shells using the bill as a hammer, then winkling out the occupant. 
  • Surface pecking — short, shallow pecks to get at prey just below the surface of the sand.

Between them,  these turnstones seem to be using methods 1, 3, 4 and 6Ruddy Turnstones at Delphi, Abaco 2

This female bird has clearly dug down in the sand to the length of its billRuddy Turnstones at Delphi, Abaco 4

This male is digging deep…Ruddy Turnstones at Delphi, Abaco 1

When they are not actively feeding, turnstones enjoy group preening sessionsRuddy Turnstones at Delphi, Abaco 9

They are also very good at just standing around having a companionable chat…Ruddy Turnstones at Delphi, Abaco 6

…or a post-prandial snooze…Ruddy Turnstones at Delphi, Abaco 12

…or just enjoying the scenery in groups…Ruddy Turnstones at Delphi, Abaco 11

…or simply having a peaceful paddleRuddy Turnstones at Delphi, Abaco 16All photos by RH on the Delphi Club beach (where I’ve never seen one actually turn a stone)