BREADFRUIT: NATURE’S BOUNTY (WITH ADDED MUTINY)


Artocarpus altilis - breadfruit (Hans Hillewaert)

BREADFRUIT: NATURE’S BOUNTY (WITH ADDED MUTINY)

Capt. William Bligh achieved fame for all the wrong reasons. Despite a distinguished and wide-ranging seafaring career he is widely remembered for just two things: (1) The Bounty and (2) Mutiny On. In 1787, he was dispatched to Tahiti to collect specimens of breadfruit (a fruit of the Pacific islands, in particular Polynesia) to help provide food for the British colonies in the West Indies. To be clear, the breadfruit was intended to be a basic and cheap staple food not just for settlers but also for slaves.Breadfruit 2

Capt. Bligh’s Bounty crew unfortunately mutinied – possibly to do with the amount of water the breadfruit required compared to their own meagre rations – and threw overboard the hundreds of breadfruit plants that were in transit. Then they set Bligh with his loyal officers and crew adrift… He was later court-martialled but cleared of culpability for the mutiny. 

Mutiny on the HMS Bounty (Robert Dodd)

This isn’t the place for a disquisition on the Mutiny. You can read all about it HERE. Or better still, watch one of the rollicking all-star-cast films based loosely on the episode for a careful and accurate historical record of the events that will buckle your swash…

Mutiny_on_the_Bounty_Poster (1935)     220px-Poster_for_Mutiny_on_the_Bounty

Following that skirmish, and indeed blemish on his record, in 1793 Capt. Bligh was yet again charged with the task of shipping breadfruit trees from their origin to the Caribbean. His heart must have sunk, yet finally he succeeded, only for those on the eating end to express considerable distaste for such a bland, starchy fruit. It took a long time to catch on, and its culinary versatility was only discovered many decades later. By which time slavery had thankfully been abolished anyway.Breadfruit image (Pacific site)

The most famous breadfruit tree in all Abaco is to be found in Hope Town (Elbow Cay). I can do no better than display the notice that proudly proclaims the historic significance of the tree; and of course the tree itself.

Breadfruit Tree Notice, Hope Town Abaco (Dp PatersonBreadfruit Tree, Hope Town Abaco (Dp Paterson)

Unusually for a fruit plant, a true breadfruit Artocarpus altilis does not produce seeds. It is propagated by removing the suckers that grow at at the base of the tree.

For those unfamiliar with the fruit and its interior, here it is in both slice and cross-sectionBreadfruit sliced (US Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center)

BREADFRUIT IN ART

Breadfruit has received artistic recognition over the years. Here are some examples – the first, very jolly (and an early representation of the Polydamus Swallowtail butterfly, I think); the second, quite dull; the third, instructional (oddly equating breadfruit with tea, coffee and chocolate); and the fourth, frankly not at all appetising to look at…

Breadfruit with butterflies (Royal Botanic Garden, Kew)Breadfruit (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew)

                                 Breadfruit (John Frederick Miller)                                  Breadfruit drawing  John Frederick Miller

      Breadfruit & related plants used as food (William Rhind (1841)     Breadfruit etc William Rhind (1841)

Breadfruit - Bahamas Stamp

WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF BREADFRUIT

Breadfruit will flourish only within a certain latitude range where the rainfall and temperature suit it, as this map shows. I include this information in case you ever find yourself in the awkward position of being socially stranded with someone whose conversation has become soporific. Be armed with some useful worldwide breadfruit stats for just such an occasion – you will soon find yourself alone…Breadfruit - the world propagation range

A CULINARY TREAT

Breadfruit is sometimes thought to be a dull and untasty, at least compared with many other fruits. I thought I’d include a recipe or two that rather appealed to me – the second because even I could do that…

Breadfruit Recipe  (myrecipefriends.com)

BAKED BREADFRUIT

Large, ripe breadfruit 1 cup water Butter 1 lime or lemon

Heat oven to 33 degrees F. Put the water in a shallow pan and place the whole breadfruit in the water. Bake in oven for three hours. Remove from oven, allow to cool slightly, peel, removing the large core and stem. Cut the fruit into sections and place in a serving dish. Cover with butter and a squeeze of lime or lemon juice.

A PERFECT HOPE TOWN BREADFRUIT
Breadfruit, Hope Town Abaco (Dp Paterson)

This post was inspired by an article on breadfruit and the Hope Town tree by local historian Deb ‘DP’ Patterson, who will be known to many for her committed involvement with the Wyannie Malone Historical Museum in Hope Town. I’m grateful to her for permission to use her idea and indeed some of her material, in particular her photos of the tree and its notice. If you do visit this delightful little town, the museum is a treasure house of Abaconian history that deserves a visit. You can check out its website HERE and the FB page HERE.

Wyannie Malone Museum Crest, Hope Town, Abaco

Capt. Bligh managed to put his breadfruit adventures and the mutiny behind him, and continued a distinguished naval career with successive command of an impressive number of  ships. He ended up a Vice-Admiral, and (on his death in 1817) in a grave in Lambeth, London.

V-A William Bligh (1814)Grave of William Bligh, Lambeth, London (Geograph, Commons Media

HMS BOUNTY II (Full Sails). A 1960 reconstruction (Dan Kasberger)HMS_BOUNTY_II_Full_Sails 1960 reconsrtuction (Dan Kasberger)

Credits: First and foremost, Deb Patterson; Magpie Pickings including Hans Hillewaert, US Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Royal Botanic Garden Kew, myrecipefriends, M Kwek, whatsonbahamas, Wyannie Malone Historical Museum, ‘Geograph’, Dan Kasberger, and Wiki; and anyone else I have omitted…

“GOOD MIGRATIONS” by THE BEACH BIRDS


Piping Plover 32 (banded as an adult in 2010 at Manistee, MI Sleeping Bear Dunes N L, MI)

Banded in Michigan in 2010 – in Florida right now!

“GOOD MIGRATIONS” by THE BEACH BIRDS

It’s started already. The autumn migration of piping plovers from up north to down south. It seems only the other day (April in fact) that the last PIPL were seen on Abaco. Since then, they have spent the summer in their breeding grounds, raising families. This seems to have been a successful breeding season, with good reports that included a record number in the tiny Great Lakes population. But the attrition rate to predation is high: for example, of the 4 chicks in one family that was closely observed on Long Beach Island NJ, only one (‘Beth’) has survived.

Piping Plovers - 2 chicks, 2 eggs - CT (Danny Sauvageau)

Piping plovers: 2 chicks & 2 eggs, Connecticut

WHAT’S SO SPECIAL ABOUT THESE BIRDS?

A recent estimate put the world’s supply of these little birds at 8000. And of these, many spend their winter in the Bahamas, Abaco being one of their favoured destinations. The survival of the species is in the balance. Habitat degradation at either end of their migrations could be disastrous; at both ends, more than doubly so.

Piping Plover (juv) CT (Danny Sauvageau)

Piping Plover juvenile, Connecticut

HOW CAN THEIR SURVIVAL BE ASSURED?

A number of organisations and individuals are dedicated to looking out for the PIPL. This includes ensuring preservation of habitat integrity and protection on the beaches where they nest, and banding programs so that birds can be tracked and monitored during their migrations. This is one aspect which people on Abaco (and elsewhere) can help with – looking out for these birds, reporting their location and how many are seen, and if possible describing the bling: colour of bands, which legs, which order,visible numbers etc. Or better still, taking photos!

Piping Plover CT (Danny Sauvageau)

WHERE WILL I FIND PIPING PLOVERS ON ABACO?

On beaches and shorelines. On the mainland, places where they were reported last year included Long Beach, Crossing Rocks, Schooner Bay, the beach at Delphi, Bahamas Palm Shores, Casuarina and Little Harbour. They also visit the cays, with a number reported on Man-o-War Cay for example.Piping Plover (Danny Sauvageau) 3

HOW FAR HAVE THEY GOT IN THEIR TRAVELS?

Well on their way south. Danny Sauvageau, who combines monitoring beaches in Florida with being a wonderful bird photographer, has just reported the first arrivals. On 23 July he saw 3 unbanded PIPL in Dunedin Fl. – here’s one of them.Piping Plover, Dunedin, FL (Danny Sauvageau)

Then on 29 July Danny found his first banded Piping Plovers of the 2015-16 wintering season at Fort Desoto – 6 birds of which 5 were banded. This enabled him to recognise them as returners, and to identify their origin: “Two were from the Great Lakes (Michigan), two were from the Great Plains (North Dakota and South Dakota) and one was from Nebraska!”.

These 3 examples show the wide variation in banding in the different locations. Which is why a photo of a bird’s legs is particularly helpful for the research into the species.

PPL-106- 2nd year at Ft Desoto - Banded in Nebraska PPL-35 - 3rd year at Ft Desoto - Banded as a chick 2012 Vermillion, MI along Lake Superior PPL-2 - 3rd year at Ft Desoto - Banded as a adult 2013 Whitefish Point, MI along Lake Superior

The CONSERVE WILDLIFE FOUNDATION OF NJ is involved annually with researching the piping plovers of Abaco. Many will be familiar with the scientists Todd Pover and Stephanie Egger who visit each year to monitor the plovers. For those who do not already have a direct line to them I would be very pleased to receive reports of sightings to collate and pass on. The monitoring work provides exactly the kind of information that will help to ensure the survival of this adorable but vulnerable species. Please email me at rollingharbour.delphi@gmail.com or, better still, upload info / pics to the new FB page I have set up, ABACO PIPING PLOVER WATCH 2015 – 16Piping Plover Charadrius melodus (Ontario, MDF : wiki)

The most helpful information to have is date; time; location; number of birds; whether banded or unbanded; and if banded, as much information as possible or ideally a photo…

lbi-piping-plover-chick

TYPICAL MUSICAL DEVIATION FROM THE TOPIC

The referencing in the title to a famous ‘disc’ from 1966 by a ‘popular beat combo’ does not presage a re-formation. In the past there was acrimony. Some drink ‘n’ drugs hell. Splits and re-formations. Sadly not all former members are still with us. Here’s a memory of them from (arguably) their most satisfyingly inventive era… **EARWORM ALERT** now you won’t be able to get the wretched tune out of your head. It’s given you ‘excitations’. Sorry about that.

Credits: All photos courtesy of Danny Sauvageau except ‘lone chick’ MDF & ‘chick in hand’ CWFNJ; shout outs to Danny, Todd, Stephanie and all PIPL researchers. Plus Bay Soundings. And the Beach Boys…

ADDENDUM AUG 2 A good article about the significance of banding can be found at BAY SOUNDINGS (based around Tampa Bay). It includes contributions from Danny and a useful info box:

Reporting banded birds

Reporting banded birds is one of the most important activities for citizen-scientists, says Wraithmell. “It’s the only way we have to solve the mystery of migration – to learn where they stop and where they winter so we can protect that habitat too.”

Most photographers stumble upon their first banded birds accidentally because they don’t always see the bands until they review their images on a computer screen. After that, they’ll learn to watch for the bands even if they don’t get close enough to see them with their naked eye.

“There’s something very exciting about photographing banded birds, learning where they came from and following their travels if they’ve been seen and reported before,” Sauvageau said.

But capturing an image shouldn’t outweigh allowing the bird to rest or feed in peace, Wraithmell said. “One thing that’s really important is not disturbing the birds, whether they’re nesting or just resting,” she said. If nesting birds are disturbed, they fly off and leave their eggs or babies in broiling sun and defenseless against predators. Wintering birds need to rest and pack on the pounds before they fly back to their summer breeding grounds.

“Some birds, like piping plovers, actually spend more time here than they do nesting,” she said. “Their main job over the winter is eating and resting so they can nest successfully. And breeding is hard work – it takes a lot of energy to make an egg and then to feed and defend a chick until it’s old enough to take care of itself.”

For the scientists who band birds, “it’s like putting a message in a bottle and throwing it in the sea,” Wraithmell said. “Every resighting is valuable because we learn something new.”

PAN’S LABYRINTH, DAN’S CAVE: ABACO’S ASTOUNDING UNDERGROUND WORLD (5)


Dan's Cave, Abaco Bahamas (Brian Kakuk)

                                  PAN’S LABYRINTH, DAN’S CAVE                                      ABACO’S ASTOUNDING UNDERGROUND WORLD (5)

June brought news of a wonderful exploration of a near-inaccessible part of the Dan’s Cave complex in South Abaco, deep under the acres of pine forest. The expedition involved Brian Kakuk, Steve Bogaerts, Hp Hartmann, and a ‘Razor’ sidemount camera.  As Steve later wrote, “…I had the privilege to film probably the most beautiful caves in the world and to take my camera to places where nobody else has filmed before. Special thanks to Brian Kakuk to make this video happen”.

Brian’s account of his first exploration of Pan’s Labyrinth in 2010 (link below, scroll down the page you reach) is extraordinary. The difficulties faced in negotiating the narrowest of passages while carrying essential equipment makes for tense reading…

The cave systems of South Abaco within the proposed protected areaAbaco caves map jpg Abaco Caves Ralph & Dan jpg

A VISIT TO BIMINI’S MARINE ENVIRONMENT (2)


Seahorse (Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign)

A VISIT TO BIMINI’S MARINE ENVIRONMENT (2)

In this second part of the look at Bimini’s Marine Protected Area Campaign and the photographs that illustrate the vital importance of the mangroves, reefs, sea grass and pristine sea to marine life, it’s time to look at some of the the smaller sea creatures in their underwater habitat. Many of these are vulnerable to changes in their environment; some are already rare. 

SPINY LOBSTER

Spiny Lobster Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign copy 3 Spiny Lobster Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

SEA HORSES

Sea Horse Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Seahorse Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Seahorses Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

SEA HARE

For more information on this creature, click HERE

164441_607403889277224_192821659_nSea Hare squirting ink Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

BATFISH

To learn more about Batfish, click HERE

Batfish Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

QUEEN CONCHQueen Conch Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

SILVERSIDES

At first glance you may wonder why these little fish are worth including. The answer lies in the food chain. The clean environment in which these bait fish thrive provides food for larger species and so on up the chain… If silversides ceased to exist, a vital source of marine nutrition would be lost.

Silversides Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign copySilversides Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

CREDITS: Bimini’s Marine Protected Area Campaign with many thanks for use permission of their material including images © Grant Jonson / 60 Pound Bullet Photography, and to all other photographers featured. Overall, cheers to Bimini, wildlife and conservation…

HOW TO CATCH FISH EFFECTIVELY, OSPREY-STYLE


Osprey, Abaco Bahamas (Tom Sheley)

Osprey (Abaco, Bahamas) – Tom Sheley

HOW TO CATCH FISH EFFECTIVELY, OSPREY-STYLE

I have featured the wonderful photography of Phil Lanoue before. He specialises in taking sequences of the larger birds, many of them as they hunt for fish: herons, egrets, anhingas – and ospreys. Here is a remarkable sequence of an osprey showing its fishing skills, with a surprise ending that I won’t give away.

osprey-catches-two-fish-01 (Phil Lanoue)osprey-catches-two-fish-02  (Phil Lanoue) osprey-catches-two-fish-03  (Phil Lanoue) osprey-catches-two-fish-04  (Phil Lanoue) osprey-catches-two-fish-05  (Phil Lanoue)

Pretty cool trick, huh?osprey-catches-two-fish-06  (Phil Lanoue)

Credits: Header image – Tom Sheley; Osprey sequence – Phil Lanoue. Many thanks to both for use permission

“CLINGING TO THE WRECKAGE”: BAHAMAS CLINGING CRABS


Clinging crab in smoke stack on Theo's Wreck ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

“CLINGING TO THE WRECKAGE”: BAHAMAS CLINGING CRABS

The Clinging Crab Mithrax spinosissimus answers to a number of names: West Indian spider crab, channel clinging crab, reef or spiny spider crab, or coral crab. It is found throughout the waters of South Florida and the Caribbean. Clinging Crab ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

These are crabs of the reef, or indeed of the wrecks that may be found around reefs. Some of the crabs in this post have chosen wrecks as their home – in the header image the crab is living inside the smoke stack of ‘Theo’s Wreck’, Grand Bahama.Clinging Crab ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

The clinging crab is believed to be omniverous, its main diet being algae and carrion. They can grow to 2 kg, and it is the largest species of reef crab found in the Caribbean.Clinging Crab © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

The clinging crab / West Indian spider crab is (apparently) not commercially harvested for its meat. However, it is said to be delicious. Any views on this welcome in the comments section! If you want to know more about how to prepare (“a real challenge”) and cook a spider crab, check out this LINK

Clinging Crab ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Life on the reef can be dangerous. This crab has lost some legs: its clinging powers are somewhat curtailed…Clinging Crab (legs missing) ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

This guy has some missing parts, but seems quite laid back about it…Clinging Crab, Bahamas (Melinda Riger, G B Scuba)

Credits: Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba (all photos); Tom Hunt, eco-chef (recipe)

A VISIT TO BIMINI’S MARINE ENVIRONMENT (1)


Loggerhead Hatchling Bimini BMPAC

Loggerhead Hatchling (Bimini’s Marine Protected Area Campaign)

A VISIT TO BIMINI’S MARINE ENVIRONMENT (1)

Abaco is fortunate already to have special conservation areas, both on land (e.g. the huge National Park) and at sea (e.g. Fowl Cay Marine Preserve). Other preserves are in active stages of development. Elsewhere in the Bahamas, where the natural life is equally wonderful, battles are being fought to protect pristine habitat from the encroachments of modern life such as unsuitable development (or development in unsuitable locations). For this first look at Bimini, I am most grateful to Bimini’s Marine Protected Area Campaign  for permission to use some of their wonderful photographic archive that illustrates the vital importance of the mangroves, reefs, sea grass and pristine sea to marine life large and small. It’s worth checking out the background and surrounding context of these images to see the sort of habitat the creatures depicted prefer. This post features some of the larger species.

HAMMERHEAD SHARKS

Hammerhead Shark, Bimini (Grant Johnson/ 60 Pound Bullet)Hammerhead Sharks 3 Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Hammerhead Shark 2 Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Hammerhead Shark 4 Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

NURSE SHARK NURSERY IN THE MANGROVES

Nurse Sharks Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Nurse Shark BMPAC

BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS

Dolphin 2 Bimini's Marine Protected Area CampaignDolphin Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

RAYS

A pregnant female southern stingray, seen from belowSouthern Stingray (pregnant) Bimini's Marine Protected Area CampaignRay, Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign Ray, Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

HAWKSBILL TURTLES

Turtle in Mangroves Bimini's Marine Protected Area CampaignHawkshead Turtle 2 Bimini's Marine Protected Area Campaign

CREDITS: Bimini’s Marine Protected Area Campaign with many thanks for use permission of their material including images © Grant Jonson / 60 Pound Bullet Photography, and to all other photographers featured. Overall, cheers to Bimini, wildlife and conservation…