Scrawled Filefish ©Melinda Riger @ GBS


The jocularly-named WTF? series is designed to shed an underwater spotlight on some of the odder denizens of the coral reefs and surrounding waters. I don’t want to earn a reputation for being ‘lookist’, but frankly the appearance of some of these creatures – I give you BATFISH or FROGFISH or REMORAS as examples – is baffling. The filefish group is not as extreme as some in the downright weird category, but if you see one you might just find yourself muttering into your facemask “wtf?”

Scrawled Filefish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

Filefish (Monacanthidae) are found in tropical and subtropical oceans worldwide. They are related to triggerfish, trunkfish and pufferfish, and have regional names that include leatherjacket, foolfish, and shingle. There are more than 100 species of filefish, of which only a few are found in Bahamian waters. The species featured here are a mix of scrawled, white-spotted and orange-spotted filefish.

Filefish White-spotted ©Melinda Riger @G B Scuba


In the image above, you can just see a flattened spine on top, above the eye and pointing backwards. This is the ‘retracted’ state. There is a small secondary spine that serves to prop up the main spine when it is in the upright position. This is it seems, the file – although the Greek-derived family name Monacanthidae literally means ‘one thorn’. So why isn’t it a thornfish, you may well ask. And I may well not respond.

This filefish’s ‘spine’ seems to have flopped over to one sideWhite Spotted File fish

These fish have snouts with small mouths and specialized teeth with an inner and outer set on each jaw. They are to an extent shapeshifters, and can quickly make themselves appear larger for defensive purposes. In some individual species, there are marked differences in body shape and coloration.

An orange-spotted filefish with its spine erect, making for a cave – a place of safetyFilefish, Orange Spotted ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

The fins of a filefish are small, and they are rather sedate swimmers. Sometimes they simply like to drift with their heads pointed downwards, eyeing patches of seagrass or seaweed for prey. Some species are largely vegetarian. Others eat small invertebrates. Some even feed on corals. Their predators – especially  the juveniles –  include tuna and dolphins (mahi-mahi).
ADDITION Capt Rick Guest has helpfully expanded on juvenile filefish: “The juveniles hang under sea weed and flotsam eating small shrimps and crabs there. They, in turn become food for Mahi and other pelagic fish. The main thing with these guys is that the bigger they are, the more likely they are to be Ciguateric”.
At his suggestion I will write a post about the  problem of the Ciguatera disease when I have had some time to do the research.

Scrawled File Fish


Good question. The answer, broadly is yes, though I don’t know if that applies to all species of filefish. They are certainly eaten in large quantities in the Far East. I don’t know about the Bahamas or the wider Caribbean. If anyone does, could you very kindly add a comment to this post. Recipes welcome!

Scrawled Filefish

All photos: Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba


Shark, Blacktip ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy 2


From time to time I wonder about the naming of animals. I know about the problems that can arise when people name their chickens Henny, Penny, Denny & Lenny, and the time comes to (please look away now). And how a slavering dog coming towards you (not on a lead) that the owner calls ‘Tyson’ or ‘Killer’ is possibly one to cross the street for. And that the owner of a cat called ‘The Reverend Wenceslas Muff’ (Sir Roy Strong, in fact) may not take kindly to you referring to it facetiously as ‘Puddy-tat’. But does it make things any better to know that the shark that is eyeballing you is called Lucy? I don’t know the names of the others, but I am sure they would all like to be introduced… Shark close-up ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copyShark with remora ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copyShark © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy 2Shark ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy 2Shark Head ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy 2Shark 2 ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy 2Shark 4 ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copyShark (pregant female) ©Melinda Riger @G B Scuba copy

REMORAS Some of the photos show a strange creature attached to the underside of the shark. For more info about these weird shark passengers, and some great images, click HERE

All the fabulous photographs above were taken by Melinda Riger and Virginia Cooper of Grand Bahama Scuba, on whom I rely entirely for subaqueous material, being a pathetic swimmer, a gnarly ancient, and a certified scaredy-cat (‘highly commended’). My thanks as always to them for use permission


Black Grouper ed ©Virginia Cooper @ G B Scuba 2


The Black Grouper is a large fish of the reefs found in the western Atlantic, particularly in the waters of Florida, Bahamas, Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. It is a solitary species that mostly prefers the shallow waters around coral reefs.

Black Grouper ©Virginia Cooper @ G B Scuba

Formerly plentiful, these groupers (like other grouper species) have moved from an IUCN listing of ‘Least Concern’ to ‘Near-Threatened’. They have the twin disadvantages of being fished for sport and fished for food. As demand for grouper on the menu rises, so does its vulnerability. The species is described as a ‘slow breeder’, so a depleting population has less chance of sustaining numbers. 

Black Grouper ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

An adult black grouper’s diet consists of small fish and squid. Juveniles feed primarily on crustaceans. However, certain tiny reef fish are important to the species as ‘cleaners’. You can read about their significance by clicking CLEANING STATIONS Here are examples of two black groupers receiving attention at the same cleaning station. Both also seem to be giving a ride to REMORAS.

Grouper at cleaning station ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

Note that this fish has an embedded hook and is trailing a line – one that ‘got away’Grouper, Black, at cleaning station (+ hook) ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

Despite the name, black groupers are not all black. They have many shades from dark to olive-coloured to pale. I believe the two photos below are of a grouper known as Arthur, a favourite with divers and definitely off the menu… Black Grouper  ©Melinda Riger @ G B ScubaBlack Grouper 2 ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

The tiny bright blue fish in the photo above are Blue Chromis, a regular accompaniment on any snorkel or dive on a reef. I like the colourful little Fairy Basslet in the next photoBlack Grouper © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

Now that the NASSAU GROUPER has been awarded a closed season to help maintain numbers, it will be interesting to see if the winter fishing ban is extended to the Black Grouper…

Black Grouper (Arthur) ©Virginia Cooper @ G B Scuba




Credits: all photos Virginia Cooper and Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba 


  Peacock Flounder ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba



I have briefly featured this fish before in the context of its extraordinary camouflage abilities; and also its interesting ocular arrangements. Time to give it another swim around, I think, with some additional photos that I have collected.

Peacock Flounder

Bothus lunatus is the Atlantic / Caribbean version of a species also found in the Pacific and Indian oceans. Adults may grow up to 18 inches long. The species is a ‘lefteye’ flounder, with both eyes on its left (top) side & its right side underneath.  However a baby flounder looks & swims like normal fish, with bilateral eyes. As it grows, the right eye gradually ‘moves’ round to the topside, and it becomes a flatfish.

Peacock Flounder

A flounder’s eyes can move independently of each other. One may look forwards, the other backwardsPeacock Flounder Eye ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba


The Peacock Flounder has extraordinary  colour-changing powers, and can rapidly vary its background colour to make it closely resemble that of its surroundings. This enables it camouflage itself as it lies on the seabed. It can change coloration completely in between two to eight seconds.  

Four frames of the same fish taken a few minutes apart showing the ability of flounders to change colors to match the surroundings (Wiki)Peacock Flounder Brocken Inaglory

Check out these imitative patterns in Bahamas waters…Peacock Flounder (f) ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba


There are two advantages to the ability to camouflage (‘cryptic coloration). One is obviously to avoid detection by predators. The other is to enable the flounder to ambush its meals. They feed primarily on small fishes, crabs and shrimps, lying concealed on the seabed and grabbing any unwary prey that ventures too close. They will even partially bury themselves in the sand, leaving just their eye-stalks keeping watch…Peacock Flounder ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba


Scientists are still puzzling this out. In a conch shell, it seems the flounder can coordinate its amazing all-round vision with its hormones, instantly releasing certain pigments to its skin cells and suppressing other pigments to make the colour match. Not convinced? Then watch this short video and prepare to be impressed. 

Fred Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba, who kindly keeps a benign eye on my reef fish posts (he’s the expert), adds a third excellent reason for coloration changes: sex… “the male peacock flounder can, and does greatly intensify his colors, presumably to declare territory and attract females to his person. When doing this the males will also signal with the left pectoral fin, sticking it straight up and waving it around.” Maybe that is what is going on in the photo below – intensified, non-camouflage colours, and a raised fin…Peacock Flounder ©Melinda Riger@ G B Scuba

Peacock Flounder on a plate – Kim Rody Art983829_10154948988290716_6633206689277673329_n

Credits: Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba for almost all photos; wiki for 2 illustrative images


Hawksbill Turtle © Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba


The Bahamas has breeding populations of 5 of the world’s 7 sea turtle species – Green, Loggerhead, Hawksbill, Leatherback and Kemp’s Ridley turtles (the other two are Olive Ridley – occasionally found in the Bahamas – and Flatback turtles). All are endangered. There’s no getting away from the fact that Man and Man’s activities are now the primary threats. The IUCN ratings below make for sad reading. To see some of the problems, check out THREATS TO SEA TURTLES

Admire the photos here of Hawksbill Turtles Eretmochelys imbricata while you can – the species is IUCN red-listed and I can’t improve on this explanatory display…Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (IUCN Red List)


(thanks as ever to Melinda Riger of Grand Bahama Scuba, but for whom etc)Hawksbill Turtle ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba Hawksbill Turtle ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy Hawksbill  Turtle ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba copyHawksbill Turtle ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba copy

I did ask myself whether including this shot might show a lack of sensitivity for the essential dignity of a fine species, infringing its Testudinal rights. But overall, I feel the public interest is best  served by showing it. Anyway, it has plainly discovered something very tasty to get stuck into, so it won’t be unduly bothered. The pair of French Angelfish aren’t going to get a look-in…Hawksbill Turtle ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy 3

 The SEA TURTLE CONSERVANCY has produced an outstanding series of posters similar to the LOXAHATCHEE posters about corals, conchs, sea grass, bonefish etc. Here is their Hawksbill one, with illustrations by artist DAWN WITHERINGTON. Click the link to reach her website and see her excellent scientific drawings and a lot more besides. This excellent poster contains pretty much all the details you need to hold your own in any hawksbill-related conversation. You can enlarge it by doing that thing with 2 fingers on your track pad thingy.


I rather like this video from Andros, with the turtle’s gentle tolerance while being approached by a photographer until at last  it decides to move slowly off. The music’s a bit annoying though – it doesn’t really fit the scene IMO. 

Credits: IUCN, Melinda for the fab photos, Sea Turtle Conservancy


Scorpionfish Close-up ©Melinda Riger @GBS copy


WTF 1 concerned the REMORA, the upside-down looking fish with the trainer-sole sucker on its head with which it attaches itself to sharks and other large undersea creatures. If you’ve ever seen a picture of a shark with one or more grey passengers hitching a ride, those are these.

Remora ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

WTF 2 features some creatures found in the reef waters of the Bahamas that make you wonder just how and why they are as they are. They look unnecessarily complicated, and the design is somewhat outlandish. See what you think of these…


Burrfish ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba


Slipper Lobster ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scub.

SCORPIONFISH (& header image) camouflaged against coralScorpionfish camouflaged against coral ©Melinda Riger copy


Cowfish ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba   Cowfish 2 ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba copy


Trunkfish ©Melinda Riger @GBS copy 3


“Watch this…”Porcupine Fish (Virginia Cooper via G B Suba)

“Ta Daaaaaa”porcupine-fish


Airplane remains ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

*Well, it’s really airplane wreckage. Besides a few other planes and a variety of ships that can be explored underwater, there are also two locomotives in Abaco waters that “fell off” a ship while being transported. Now recreate in your mind the subsequent conversation with an insurance company…

APOLOGIES Header image repeated to sort out FB visuals problem that’s driving me nutsScorpionfish Close-up ©Melinda Riger @GBS copy

Credits: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba;Virginia Cooper;


Nurse Shark ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba


The scientific name for the nurse shark sounds like something Bilbo Baggins might have said to summon elves to his rescue: Ginglymostoma cirratum. Actually the name is a mix of Greek and Latin and means “curled, hinged mouth” to describe this shark’s somewhat puckered appearance. The origin of the name “nurse shark” is unclear. It may come from the sucking sound they make when hunting for prey in the sand, which vaguely resembles that of a nursing baby. Or it may derive from an archaic word, nusse, meaning cat shark. The most likely theory though is that the name comes from the Old English word for sea-floor shark: hurse.

Shark ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba

Nurse sharks are slow-moving bottom-dwellers and are, for the most part, harmless to humans. However, they can be huge—up to 14 feet (4.3 meters)—and have very strong jaws filled with thousands of tiny, serrated teeth, and will bite defensively if stepped on or bothered by divers who assume they’re docile. [There are recorded instances of injuries caused to divers who have tried to pull nurse sharks by the tail. And serve them right, I say. Treat them with patience – and respect!] 

Nurse_shark_with_remoras Duncan Wright (Sabine's Sunbird)

Notice that the nurse shark in the above photo, and in the header image, is being attended by REMORAS. Click the link to find out more about the strange relationship these ‘weird suckers’ have with larger marine creatures.

Nurse Shark ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba

They use their strong jaws to crush and eat shellfish and even coral, but prefer to dine on fish, shrimp, and squid. [And also stingrays, apparently. They have been observed resting on the bottom with their bodies supported on their fins, possibly providing a false shelter for crustaceans which they then ambush and eat.] They are gray-brown and have distinctive tail fins that can be up to one-fourth their total length. Unlike most other sharks, nurses are smooth to the touch. 

Nurse Shark ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba

Nurse sharks are found in the warm, shallow waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. They are abundant throughout their range and have no special conservation status, although the closeness of their habit to human activities is putting pressure on the species.


Nurse sharks are nocturnal and will often rest on the sea floor during the day in groups of up to 40 sharks, sometimes piled on top of each other.

Shark, Nurse (young) ©Melinda Riger @ GB Scuba


  • Type: Fish 
  • Diet:  Carnivore
  • Size: 7.5 to 9.75 ft (2.2 to 3 m)
  • Weight: 200 to 330 lbs (90 to 150 kg)
  • Size relative to a 6-ft (2-m) man:
Illustration: Shark compared with adult manNurse Shark ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

Credits: All photos Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba; range map and text mostly  NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC  filled out with other pickings