Yellowtail Damselfish (©Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)


Yellowtails are just one of several damselfish species in Bahamas waters. These small fish are conspicuous not just for the bright tails that give them their name. More striking if anything – especially if seen underwater in sunlight against the coral – are the electric blue spots visible in both adults and juveniles.

Yellowtail Damselfish (©Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

The body of adults is dark blue to brownish to almost black 

The body of juveniles is blue

Yellowtails are a common and widespread variety of damselfish. They have a limited ability to change colour according to their surroundings, but with their bright tails and luminous blue flecks, it’s hard to see how they can look, to a predator, anything other than a tasty snack.

I have enjoyed seeing these little fish at Fowl Cay Marine Preserve, Abaco. The reef there makes for easy and rewarding snorkelling, with a wide variety of small and medium-size reef fishes to be seen. It’s an expedition I would definitely recommend to anyone wanting to see a healthy and active reef in a completely natural protected area.

I found that a video I took with a tiny camera was sadly of use only to myself. No one else would be able to make anything out due to the marked camera shake. Novices, huh? You are spared that: here’s a brief example of yellowtails swimming instead, showing the difference between juveniles and adults.

Credits: all photos, Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba; video from Desert Diving


Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)


I can think of no sensible connection between the colourful yet undoubtedly strange and grumpy-looking looking queen triggerfish Balistes vetula, and a hurricane. However, Hurricanes Irma and Maria have been rightly dominating the news and everyone’s thoughts for nearly 3 weeks now. And most of the recent posts from Rolling Harbour, for that matter. It’s not been a great time for looking at the birds, beasts and fishes. So, as Maria drifts eastwards and away from the Bahamas into the open ocean, it’s time for a splash of colour – and a fish I have not featured before. 

Hurricane Maria tracking at 11.00 EST on Sept 22

Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

The queen triggerfish, sometimes known as an Old Wife, is an Atlantic reef fish. This species is sometime fished for as game, and I know that a few have been taken from off the rocks at the south end of Delphi beach over the years – though perhaps not exactly on purpose.

Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Mark Peter, Wiki)Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

This fish typically is coloured with shades of  blue, purple, turquoise and green with a yellowish throat, with pale blue lines fins on head and fins. It’s minor superpower is to be able to change its coloration to some extent to match its reef surroundings and assist camouflage. Its favourite food is the sea urchin.

Queen Triggerfish Bahamas (Clark Anderson / Aqua-images)

Let’s hope this is the last post to feature anything about hurricanes for a good long time, as we think of all those still struggling to make sense of the terrible destruction they have recently experienced – in some places, twice over.

Credits: Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba; Mark Peter, Wiki; Clark Anderson / Aqua-images


Spotfin Butterflyfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)


Butterflyfishes are a large family of mainly colourful small fish somewhat like mini-angelfish. The spotfin butterflyfish (Chaetodon ocellatus) is one of several types of butterflyfish found in the western Atlantic Ocean; and one of half a dozen or so you are likely to see nosing around the coral reefs of the Bahamas.

Spotfin Butterflyfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

The name ‘spotfin’ derives from the dark spot on the dorsal fin. At the front end, there is a distinctive black vertical stripe that passes right through the eye. Combined with the vivid colouring, predators are in theory confused or warned off.  The spotfin’s superpower (on a modest scale) is that at night, a change of appearance occurs in adults. The dark patch on the dorsal fin increases in size, and dark bands appear on the body. This seems to be in order to provide further protection during the darker hours.

Spotfin Butterflyfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

The spotfin above has an isopod attached to it, a type of crustacean with a segmented body. Primitive fossils of these creatures have been dated back some 3m years. Want to know want this one is up to? These things “are mostly external parasites of fish or crustaceans and feed on blood, having piercing and sucking mouthparts and clawed limbs adapted for clinging onto their hosts”.

Soldierfish photobombs a spotfin. Or maybe it’s vice versa?Parasitic species are mostly external parasites of fish or crustaceans and feed on blood. The larvae of the Gnathiidae family and adult cymothoidids have piercing and sucking mouthparts and clawed limbs adapted for clinging onto their hosts.

Reading about this particular species of  butterfly fish, I discovered that the spotfin “is very common and very hard to maintain in a tank” –  as if the two facts are somehow connected. So might they be coarse or vulgar, and thus unsuitable companions for better bred and perhaps sensitive aquarium fish? As it turns out, it may be because they are vulnerable to predation, and so can coexist only with peaceable tank friends. 

Spotfins are perfectly happy swimming upside down; and their party trick apparently is to rise to the surface and squirt a jet of water in the air. Sadly, I couldn’t come up with a photo of this…




Credits: All fab photos by Melinda Riger / Grand Bahamas Scuba


Redspotted Hawkfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger)


The redspotted hawkfish (Amblycirrhitus pinos) is one of a number of species of hawkfishes found worldwide. This one is found on the sub-tropical and tropical reefs of the Western Atlantic, and is therefore a fish you might see when out snorkelling or (more likely) scuba-ing in the Bahamas. These are small creatures – adults are unlikely to exceed 4 inches in length.

Redspotted Hawkfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger)

There’s not a whole lot else to report about them. They have no medicinal superpowers, for example, nor wickedly toxic spines. A quick scroll through the highways and byways of the interweb reveals that redspotted hawkfish are considered (rightly, I think) to be attractive, tend to be shy, enjoy perching on coral ledges, and are generally benign, except to smaller fishes to which they may show aggression or – worse – an appetite. 

Redspotted Hawkfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger)

As you might predict, these pretty little fish are popular in the aquarium trade, where on any view they should be kept safe from predators. But maybe captivity is a little limited in opportunities for travel and exploration. They can be bought for (I just checked) $29.99. Or else left alone on a reef to take their chances.

Photo Credits: Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba, with thanks as per…


Barracuda - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba


Or, if not exactly big then lethally lacerating. Their sharp fangs are all different sizes, which gives more of a mincing effect than a clean bite. Then there’s the underbite, involving more mincing. And the fact that the teeth are set at different angles. That’s a third mincing effect. Prey in those strong jaws? No chance. 

Three -way mincing machine. Avoid.Barracuda - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba Barracuda - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

Teeth? Enough dentition already. It’s impossible not to admire these lean, mean eating machines as they glide around in their natural environment. The photos below are designed to redress the balance a bit. Sinister, yes. But mighty fine fish, without a doubt.

Barracuda - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama ScubaBarracuda - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama ScubaBarracuda - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama ScubaBarracuda - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama ScubaBarracuda - Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba

All photos: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba, with thanks as ever for her terrific photos




I last took a look at nurse sharks nearly 3 years ago HERE. Time to revisit these creatures. Indeed, time for a close-up look. If you want to know more about this fascinating species, just click the link above.

The two strange items hanging down from the upper lip are sensory barbels

This side-view shows the shark’s relatively small mouth (for a shark anyway)nurse-shark-a-melinda-riger-gb-scuba

Admire the extraordinary texture of the the skin; and the tiny evil eye. Click or – better – double click on the image and you will see that the skin is in fact tessellated, made up of a mosaic of tiny squares and near-squares**nurse-shark-close-up-melinda-riger-g-b-scuba

This one is a baby nurse sharknurse-shark-baby-melinda-riger-gb-scuba

A juvenile nurse shark with a couple of grunts. Note the youngster’s paddle-like finnurse-shark-juv-melinda-riger-g-b-scuba

Head, mouth, jaws and teeth




Not really, no. They aren’t looking to pick a fight; and they are not as territorially aggressive as the ‘bitey’ sharks are (or can be).  These slow-moving bottom-dwellers are generally harmless to humans. However, they can be huge—up to 4 metres —and have very strong jaws filled with thousands of tiny, serrated teeth. They will bite defensively if stepped on or bothered by divers who assume they’re docile. [As I said previously, “there are recorded instances of injuries caused to divers who have tried to pull nurse sharks by the tail. And serve them right, I say. Treat them with patience and respect!”] 

Nurse Shark ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy


M.C. ESCHER (the inspiration for Mr Hammer) was the master of tessellation in art. Click the link to explore the dedicated website. Maybe, sensationally, one day a shark will be found with skin like this… (Alert reader: “Actually, I think it most unlikely…”)

Escher fish

Credits: field photos by Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba; Wiki for the 4 mouth images & the Escher 

Nurse Shark ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba




This post needs no commentary from me, nor my larky intrusions. These wonderful images from Melinda Riger speak for themselves. You’ll see a wide variety of soft and hard corals in the images below (prize** for the full list). If these superb photos don’t want to make you want to grab a snorkel, mask and flippers, then… well, that would be a very great shame.


**the prize is the usual legendary bottle of Kalik. Or do I mean mythical?

All wonderful photos by Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba. All corals also available in a wide range of colours in Abaco waters. See them there on the third largest barrier reef in the world (and in rather better nick that the greatest, by all accounts).