HAWKSBILL TURTLES: ENJOY THEM WHILE YOU CAN


Hawksbill Turtle Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

HAWKSBILL TURTLES: ENJOY THEM WHILE YOU CAN

Pliny the Elder (CE 23–79) was one of the earliest naturalists, besides being a philosopher, author and military commander. He wrote Naturalis Historia (Natural History), a wide-ranging work that became a model for later scholarly works, including forms of Encyclopedia. And, as he so nearly wrote, ‘si non amas testudines, vacua anima tua est’ (he that loves not sea turtles, has an empty mind)*

Hawksbill turtle grazing while a French angelfish looks onHawksbill Turtle with French Angelfish, Bahamas (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

There can be few better ways to start the New Year than with some gorgeous Hawksbill Turtles  Eretmochelys imbricata, plus a sprinkling of turtle facts to give 2019 a good push into orbit. Fortunately still available in Bahamas waters, the continued existence of Hawksbills is under serious threat. Make the most of your opportunities.

Hawksbill Turtle Bahamas (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

  • Guesstimates of the world Hawksbill Turtle population suggest that there are 5 main groups in the oceans, with few enough individuals – especially breeding females – to warrant an IUCN listing of the species as critically endangered
  • I doubt that many will forget that the next IUCN category is… extinct (≠ ‘fun fact’)
  • The largest Hawksbill colony in the world nests on an island in Queensland Australia
  • Turtles leave the sea to lay eggs in a hole dug on the beach, before returning to the sea.
  • The eggs hatch after c60 days… the turtlings emerge and are then on their own
  • Hawksbills are omnivorous, mainly eating sponges (& immune from sponge toxins)
  • They also eat sea anemones, mollusks, and jellyfish
  • Their grazing lifestyle is an important component of a healthy coral reef ecosystem

Hawksbill Turtle Bahamas (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

  • Though their shells are hard, Hawksbills are prey for sharks, crocodiles, octopuses and the biggest predator of all, humans“.
  • Despite international Hawkbill protection and conservation measures, they continue to be illegally hunted – including, in some places, for food.
  • Their lovely shells – tortoiseshell – are illegally traded for use for ornaments and jewellery
  • Japan makes its own rules (as with whales) for traditional & no doubt research purposes
  • ‘Tortoiseshell’ is the illegal item most frequently confiscated by custom officials
  • Reef and beach degradation, development, light pollution (confuses the baby turtles trying to paddle to the sea), ocean pollution / marine debris, and illegal practices are among the greatest dangers to the survival of the species. All are caused, directly or indirectly, by you and indeed me

Hawksbill T ©Melinda Riger + G B Scuba copy.jpg

Credits: wonderful photos by Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba (1, 2, 5) & Adam Rees / Scuba Works (3, 4, 6); Widecast; Nature Conservancy; OneKind Planet

Hawksbill Turtle Bahamas (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

* Do not believe this – I invented it. The quote that props up the pretentious stuff, that is – all the rest is true…

GREEN TURTLES & TURTLE AWARENESS ON ABACO


Green Turtle, Bahamas (Adam Rees)

GREEN TURTLES & TURTLE AWARENESS ON ABACO

There’s something slightly unsettling about the perspective of the header image, with foreshortening suggesting that the turtle is actually a gigantic creature with a tiny diver swimming close to it…

I don’t seem to have given green turtles much space in the past, the most frequently photographed (and therefore featured) species being the hawksbill. This post is both to right the wrong, and to provide some information about the species.

Green Turtle, Bahamas (Adam Rees)

Friends of the Environment has produced an interesting short guide to the sea turtles of the Bahamas. One of the many facts included is that 5 of the 7 sea turtle species in the world can be found in Bahamian waters. The turtle protection law is also given – also the way to report turtle nests so they can be watched and protected.

Green Turtle, Bahamas (Adam Rees)

The 4 main species are the hawksbill, green, loggerhead and leatherback. The 5th and lesser known one is the Olive Ridley turtle. The differences between most of these is considerable, as can be seen from this IUCN-produced Identification Chart (credits as shown).

Another useful source of information for green turtles is this extremely well produced poster illustrated by the excellent Dawn Witherington, who has somewhat (and deservedly) cornered the market with this kind of large-scale infographic. The sea turtle series is so helpful that I have dedicated a whole page to them HERE. Dawn also created the LOXAHATCHEE poster series covering such topics as Lionfish, Sea Grasses, Land Crabs, Bonefish, Coral Reefs and more

Green Turtle, Bahamas (Adam Rees)

All photos: Adam Rees Photography, with thanks for use permission here and elsewhere

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) 15 PORCUPINEFISH


Porcupinefish, Bahamas (©Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) 15 PORCUPINEFISH

The porcupinefish Diodon hystrix falls into the general category ‘pufferfish’, though the particular species named PUFFERFISH are distinct in their own right. There are other similar species – e.g. balloonfish, blowfish and burrfish – with which there is scope for confusion. The relationship is something like this: all porcupinefish are pufferfish (in a broad sense); but not all pufferfish (in its species sense)  are porcupinefish. 

Porcupinefish, Bahamas (©Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Porcupinefish are slow-moving reef dwellers and like their puffer cousins, they can inflate themselves by ingesting water, turning them into spiny balloons. This defence mechanism is a response to threat and works in two way: only predators with large mouths would consider them a meal; and even then they have to deal with the spines that become prominent when the fish is bloated.

Porcupinefish, Bahamas (George Parilla wiki)

I’VE HEARD PUFFERFISH ARE POISONOUS? WHAT ABOUT THIS GUY?

Good question. Checking it out, I’ve found some contrary statements about this. The truth seems to be that unlike pufferfish, they do not produce toxic secretions from their skins, so are not poisonous to touch (if you must**).

Porcupinefish, Bahamas (©Virginia Cooper / Grand Bahama Scuba)

However porcupinefish do contain powerful (neuro)toxins in their internal organs and are best not eaten – though in some parts of the world they are considered a minor delicacy. They may also suffer the ignominy of being dried in their inflated state and sold to tourists as novelties –  with lightbulbs inside for added amusement value. 

Porcupinefish, Bahamas (Bernard Dupont wiki)

ARE PORCUPINEFISH FAMOUS IN ANY RESPECT?

Indeed they are. They had the honour of being recorded by Charles Darwin. He gives a surprisingly long account of this creature, encountered during his renowned voyage on the Beagle. It clearly fascinated him. I’ve ‘ripped’ the relevant passage (open source – it’s ok) and turned it into an eezi-reed pdf if you want to check out Darwin’s careful observations in more detail:

THE VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE – CHARLES DARWIN

Porcupinefish, Bahamas (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

WAIT! ISN’T THERE A MORE RECENT CLAIM TO FAME?

Yes! In ‘Finding Nemo’, Bloat the Porcupinefish was part of the ‘Tank Gang’ in a dentist’s office. He had an encore in the closing credits of ‘Finding Dory’. Enough of fame already. Here’s a 50 second video demonstrating the puffer / porcupine distinction.

Porcupinefish, Bahamas (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

RELATED POSTS
Photo Credits: Melinda Riger (1, 2); George Parilla (3); Virgini Cooper (4); Bernard Dupont (5); Adam Rees (6, 7); Video, ‘AquariumKids’ (I do high-powered research, see?)

**Incidentally, it’s apparently not considered an act of animal kindness to catch them / scare them so you can have the pleasure of watching them blow up

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) 14: ARROW CRABS


Arrow Crab (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) 14: ARROW CRABS

It’s been a while since the last in the WTF? series, which is dedicated to the wilder, less conventionally fish-shaped side of reef life – those creatures that you may come across, blink into your face-mask,  and silently mouth the words ‘What’s That Fish?’ (that’s what it looks like you are saying, anyway).

Arrow Crab (Adam Rees)

Let’s meet some Arrow Crabs Stenorhynchus seticornis, one of the very few creatures surely to have a triangular body plus a huge pointy nose (rostrum), supported on long skinny legs. To which add, they wear tiny blue gloves on their two front claws.

Arrow Crab (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

These crabs are coral reef dwellers and mostly stay concealed during the day. Their body is protected by a carapace, and the rostrum has serrated edges like a tiny rasp or file. I haven’t found a definitive reason for this gadget, but I suspect it is more for probing than for piercing or fighting.

Arrow Crab (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

There’s a considerable colour variation among these crabs, as these images show. The body may even have blue iridescent lines (#2, above). And those claws may be any of 50 shades of blue…

Arrow Crab (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Arrow crabs are most active at night. They eat feather-duster worms (illus.) and similar invertebrates such as bristle worms.

Feather-duster worm (Melinda Riger / G B Scuba)

Arrow Crab Meal

Like certain types of shrimp, they also have a symbiotic relationship with anemones, whereby they make use of an anemone to benefit from the food it captures – and possibly for cover too. They are protected from anemone stings, whereas some of their predators are not.

This was the place where I was going to tell you about the arrow crab’s private life, but, well… “it’s complicated”. Briefly it is: male passes sperm-filled capsule to female; she uses it in some way whereby it fertilises her eggs; she then ‘broods’ the eggs in one of her ‘swimming legs’; the eggs hatch into larvae and swim off to eat plankton; each one then grows & moults, repeating the process until it has reached adult form. On balance, humans have arguably perfected a preferable method.

Arrow Crab (Nick Hobgood / Wiki)

Arrow Crabs are apparently popular aquarium creatures, although they sound to me rather a disagreeable challenge. They can move quickly on those long legs, and it seems as if they inclined to be aggressive to other inhabitants of the tank. As far as I can make out, it’s best not to put 2 of them together: they certainly won’t be doing the sperm capsule thing described earlier… 

Arrow Crab (Adam Rees)

Master of Disguise

Photo credits: Melinda Riger / G B Scuba (1, 3, 4, 5, 6); Adam Rees / Scuba Works (2, 8, 9); Nick Hopgood,Wiki (7); Chuck Elliot – video

Arrow Crab (Adam Rees)

HAWKSBILL TURTLES: DIVERS VIEWS…


Hawksbill Turtle (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

HAWKSBILL TURTLES: DIVERS VIEWS…

Daydream for a moment. Imagine that you had a different occupation. And your new one involved daily contact with spectacular wildlife underwater (this assumes you can swim – debatable in my case). And access to some upmarket camera equipment. And the ability to use it effectively. Oh, and use of a reliable boat. And some sea.

Hawksbill Turtle (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

Say, for example, you joined a dive operation. Then the chances are very high that these wonderful creatures would be a part of your daily 9-to-5. 

Hawksbill Turtle (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

You wake up with a start. Oh no! Half an hour gone, and that crucial email still half-written… Where did the time go?

Hawksbill Turtle (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

All gorgeous turtles taken by Adam Rees of Scuba Works (slogan: “Land is so overrated”) in the course of his everyday working life. Some people, eh?

Hawksbill Turtle (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

TURTLE BREEDING SEASON & A SMALL POEM TO PONDER


Sea Turtle - Adam Rees / Scuba Works

TURTLE BREEDING SEASON & A SMALL POEM TO PONDER

The turtle lives ‘twixt plated decks
Which practically conceal its sex.
I think it clever of the turtle 
In such a fix, to be so fertile.

Sea Turtle - Adam Rees / Scuba Works

Anyone unfamiliar with the works of OGDEN NASH (1902 – 1971) would do well the check out his inimitable poetry, in which he takes extreme liberties with both rhyme and scansion to great comic effect. The poem above is a good example of Nash’s neat way with words. It always makes me laugh, anyway. So simple, looks so easy, but a very difficult trick to pull off consistently as Nash effortlessly does.Sea Turtle - Adam Rees / Scuba Works

As the turtle breeding season moves forward, I though this would be a good time to show a few of the great turtle photos taken by Adam Rees of ‘Scuba Works’.Sea Turtle - Adam Rees / Scuba Works

Sea Turtle - Adam Rees / Scuba Works

All photos: Adam Rees / Scuba WorksSea Turtle - Adam Rees / Scuba Works

PREHENSILE TALES FROM THE REEF (3): SEAHORSING AROUND


Seahorse (Adam Rees / .Scuba Works)

PREHENSILE TALES FROM THE REEF (3): SEAHORSING AROUND

It’s Friday at last. It’s springtime. A spirit of benign goodwill is evident in the vicinity of Rolling Harbour. Seahorses are irresistible. Don’t even try to pretend they don’t make you smile. Hippocampophobia is an affliction that, as yet, has never been diagnosed in a human being – for whom fear of beards, clowns and the number 5 (quintaphobia) are known medical conditions. Immerse yourself with these little creatures – and then have a good weekend.

Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

All fantastic hippocampi photos: Adam Rees / Scuba Works