FORAYS WITH MORAYS (4): EXPRESSIVE FEATURES


Green Moray Eel (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

FORAYS WITH MORAYS (4): EXPRESSIVE FEATURES

Time to return to those extremely expressive characters of the coral reefs, moray eels. Specifically, some green morays. One hesitates to anthropomorphise or ‘project’ human emotions onto creatures but with some species it’s hard not to do so. Following Mr Grumpy (or perhaps Mr Sad) in the header image, here are some close-ups of morays appearing to express their emotions, from happy to downright furious… Eels featured here include Judy and Wasabi, and I remind myself that the human habit of naming familiar wild creatures is itself a (perfectly harmless) form of benign animism. Exactly as with the regular banded piping plovers featured elsewhere in this blog that overwinter on Abaco’s beaches, such as Harry Potter, Bahama Mama and the delightfully-named Felicia Fancybottom…

Happy and contented?Green Moray Eel (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)Green Moray Eel (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)Green Moray Eel (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Something on my mind…Green Moray Eel (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Slightly amused?Green Moray Eel (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Pretty funny, actuallyGreen Moray Eel (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Ha ha…! Hilair!Green Moray Eel (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

Watch it. You are beginning to bug us, Mr Harbour, with your stupid captionsGreen Moray Eel (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

ANGRY. BACK OFF… NOW!!!Green Moray Eel (Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba)

THE NEXT POST WILL BE FROM ABACO HQ NEXT WEEK

Credits: All morayvellous photos, Melinda Riger / Grand Bahama Scuba except 6, Virginia Cooper / Grand Bahama Scuba

SAWFISH: UNIQUE LIVE BIRTH FOOTAGE ON ANDROS


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SAWFISH: UNIQUE LIVE BIRTH FOOTAGE ON ANDROS

The word ‘awesome’ – a word of Biblical origin and medieval usage connoting an experience of wonderment with an element of dread* – lost its power once it became the common verbal currency for describing the offer of a beer, a photograph of a sulky cat, or a so-so pub band. Where to turn for something truly momentous? Oh, actually that might do nicely. Breathtaking, astounding, astonishing, awe-inspiring, staggering, extraordinary, stupendous, and spectacular are examples of synonyms that have retained at least some of their power. And perhaps ‘mind-blowing’, though it’s a bit substance-tinged. ‘Amazing’ has pretty much gone the way of awesome. Amazeballs and badass? Let’s not!

Sawfish Grand Bahama (BNT / Buzz Cox)

Ok. Having got that linguistic grump out of the way (index under ‘English Language, debasement of, modern usage in), here’s the real deal: a truly phenomenal short video of a smalltooth sawfish Pristis pectinata safely giving live birth in the wild to her 5 babies (which are called pups) on Andros during a FSU research trip. The pups emerge as small replicas of their parent, complete with their hedgetrimmer-style rostrums, ready to swim away. Fishes that carry their young and give birth to one or more developed juveniles in this way are called ovoviviparous.

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The commentary is clear and informative, the research potential for this vulnerable species is considerable, and if you have a soul and a spare 3 minutes, you really should watch this!

This unique recorded event took place last December. The joint research trip to Andros by the FSU Coastal and Marine Lab and NOAA was led by Dr. Dean Grubbs. The purpose of the research was to discover evidence of any exchange between the sawfish population in the U.S. and Bahamas. You can find out more about the research and scientists at the FSUCML website. And if you want to get involved and take part in an expedition, click GET INTO THE FIELD

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RELATED POSTS

RH SAWFISH PAGE – pics, facts and vids, including how the rostrum is used in feeding

GUITARFISH (WTF? 8)

* ‘Awful’ had the same meaning as awesome, historically – cf dreadful. It did not mean a bad film or a lousy restaurant.Sawfish_1This recent photograph by Adam Rees of Scuba Works was taken in Florida waters. It is one of an astonishing school of 8 smalltooth sawfish, the largest group Adam has ever encountered.sawfish-2-adam-rees-scuba-works-copy

Credits: Header, Grant Johnson @60poundbullet (Bimini), with many thanks; BNT / Buzz Cox (Grand Bahama); Adam Rees / Scuba Works

BLUEHEAD WRASSE: PRIVATE LIFE LAID BARE


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BLUEHEAD WRASSE: PRIVATE LIFE LAID BARE

The bluehead wrasse (or blue-headed wrasse) Thalassoma bifasciatum is a denizen of the coral reefs of the tropical waters of the western Atlantic Ocean. This bright little 4-inch fish is… a wrasse with a blue head. No more and no less. Unless it’s a juvenile. Then it is mainly bright yellow. It’s similar to BLUE TANG (aka ‘the Disney Dory’), which starts life bright yellow and grows up to be blue.

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The species may be found singly, in pairs or small groups, or in schools.  They have an important role to play in the life of the reef. They are CLEANER FISH, vital to the health and wellbeing of the larger species they attend to, and thus of the reef itself. This is ‘cleaning symbiosis’, a relationship of mutual benefit. The big fish get cleaned; the little fish have a useful function and – importantly for them – therefore don’t get eaten. 

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Having said that, blueheads are of course fair game as a snack for species that aren’t in the market for their cleaning services. And, unfairly, some species that are content to let cleaner gobies runtle around their gills and mouths are not so considerate of the wrasse. Some types of grouper and moray eel, for example.

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TELL US EXACTLY SEVEN BLUEHEAD WRASSE FACTS

  • Juveniles can alter the intensity of their colour, stripes & bars
  • The bluehead wrasse is a ‘protogynous sequential hermaphrodite’
  • All are born female**. Some change sex to male during maturation (see below)
  • Food includes zooplankton, small molluscs and small crustaceans…
  • …and parasites / other juicy bits (fungal growths, anyone?) from bigger fish
  • The main threat to the species is coral reef degradation or destruction
  • The bright colours invite aquarium use, but the trade is not a significant one

** Some sources suggest some are born male and remain male. I’m not sure which is right

A juvenile bluehead (with feather-duster worms) – mostly yellow, with a pale underside
Bluehead Wrasse juvenile (wiki)

THE REMARKABLE SEX LIFE OF THE BLUEHEAD WRASSE

This is an unavoidable topic, I’m afraid. The bluehead’s sex life is the most interesting thing about them, and this is no time to be prudish. It is the subject of extensive scientific research, not all of which I have read since I decided to write about the species last night. Like many human relationships, “it’s complicated”, but in a conch shell it boils down to this:

  • To recap, BWs are born female and as they mature, some become male.
  • Males reach an ‘initial phase’ when they can breed in groups with females
  • Some males grow even larger & reach full colouration. This is the ‘terminal phase’
  • These large males aggressively chase away smaller ones & seek females to pair with
  • Their state of readiness (as it were) is signalled by colour changes
  • This behaviour is similar to that seen in many city centres in a Saturday night
  • The smaller fish have one bonus – their sperm count is higher than a dominant male
  • Prozac tests have shown that the drug reduces a dominant male’s aggression

blue-headed_wrasse_det (wiki)

As the excellent organisation OCEANA puts it: Bluehead Wrasses may reproduce in four different ways throughout their lifetime:  1) as a female in a group spawning event; 2) as a female in a pair spawning event within the territory of a large male; 3) as a small male in a group spawning event; and 4) as a dominant, terminal male in a pair spawning event within its own territory.

A cropped still from a video I took at Fowl Cay marine reserve. I’ve looked at dozens of images online and not found one that was all blue with a yellow end to its tail fin. Maybe it’s not a BW at all. Or it’s a different type of fish completely. Or perhaps it is just an all-blue alpha male.bluehead-wrasse-fowl-cay-mr-abaco

Credits & Sources: Melinda Riger; Adam Rees; James St John; Oregon State edu / Pinterest; Wiki images; self; Oceana; IUCN; magpie pickings

A bluehead wrasse passes the time of day with a gruntbluehead-wrasse-grunt-adam-rees

ABSORBING SPONGES ON THE BAHAMAS REEFS…


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ABSORBING SPONGES ON THE BAHAMAS REEFS…

A while back I showed a collection of colourful sponges – one that you might come across with minimum equipment. Snorkel, mask, flippers. Oh, and a coral reef, if you happen to have one handy. I suspect that to quite a few people the word ‘sponge’ means soggy yellow thing, as found in the proximity of a bath. Or a scratchy nylon-based equivalent. Well, here are a few more sponges to enjoy. Some I can give you the names of, some I don’t know and am too idle busy to look up… Sorry.

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Candelabra Songe (with brittle stars attached)candelabra-sponge-melinda-riger-g-b-scubasponge-melinda-riger-g-b-scuba

Black Ball Spongesblack-ball-sponge-melinda-riger-g-b-scuba-copy

One for Valentine’s Dayheart-shaped-sponge-melinda-riger-gb-scuba

Vase Spongesvase-sponge- pink-melinda-riger-gb-scubavase-sponge-melinda-riger-g-b-scuba

sponges-and-coral-on-the-reef

Spawning Brown Encrusting Spongebrown-encrusting-sponge-spawning-melinda-riger-g-b-scuba

All photos: Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba

HUMPBACK WHALE SEEN OFF SANDY POINT, ABACO


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HUMPBACK WHALE SEEN OFF SANDY POINT, ABACO

Dolphins are regularly seen around the coast and in the fishing grounds of Abaco. Sometimes, they make it easy by nosing into harbours and being generally adorable for a while, to the delight of onlookers. Hope Town can be a good place for this. Those aboard the “Donnies” –  the ferries that criss-cross the Sea of Abaco from the main island to the various Cays – may be in luck too. However, it is perhaps less well known that Abaco waters provide a home or a migratory passage for gigantic whales. Beside these mighty creatures, the several other whale species of the Bahamas seem relatively small. Yes it’s true: there are huge whales – humpbacks and sperm whales (cachalots) – to be found in Abaco waters, and not so very far from land either.

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The humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae above, with its characteristic white pectoral fins, was seen about a week ago off Sandy Point (southwest Abaco). You’ll get an idea of its immense size from the photo. An adult of this BALEEN WHALE species can reach 50 feet in length and weigh 35 tons or more. Imagine watching one slipping silently past your boat… and then consider that even larger sperm whales are seen in the same area. 

For the link to report a Bahamas whale sighting, please see either link provided below

Humpback whale / adult male human in scuba gear comparison
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Humpbacks are found in oceans throughout the world. They migrate huge distances each year, from polar regions to the tropical and sub-tropical waters where they breed. These are the whales beloved of wildlife film producers and whale-watching trips, with their spectacular arched breaching in which half their length or more may emerge from the water before smashing back into the waves. 

A humpback breaches on the Stellwagen Bank (about 50 miles offshore of Boston)
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Like other large whale species, humpbacks were unsurprisingly prime targets for the whaling industry in a melancholy era of marine history that took them to the edge of extinction until a moratorium was declared in 1966. Since then the population has recovered significantly. They remain vulnerable, however: in some locations, to killing; to entanglement in heavy-duty fishing gear; to ship collisions; and to noise pollution that affects their ability to communicate long-distances underwater, as they need to do.

Finally, the Sandy Point humpback makes a last dive and, with a wave of its fluke, disappears  bmmro-humpbacks-4    bmmro-humpbacks-3

Do you have a Bahamas whale or dolphin sighting to report? Please use this link, giving as many of the details as you can. Each report makes a valuable contribution to the BMMRO’s research. 

http://www.bahamaswhales.org/sightings.aspx

As a footnote, my first whale encounter was on the Stellwagen Bank mentioned above, when I went on a whale-watching trip from Boston. We encountered a mother humpback with her calf and spent about 1/2 hour watching them interacting. I have the memories luckily – my photos were rubbish, using a very early digital camera that these days would be less effective and well-spec’d that a luminous pink plastic child’s camera now… 
stellwagen-humpbacks-keith-salvesen-2 Version 3stellwagen-humpbacks-keith-salvesen-3

RELATED POSTS

HUMPBACK HOPE TOWN ABACO

BLAINVILLE’S BEAKED WHALES

BMMRO

SIGHTING REPORTS

Credits: Brad & his crew, and the BMMRO; Whit Wells / Wiki for the breaching whale; moi for the rotten but quite interesting archive photos from the same place; the whale for being awesome in the true sense of the word

WONDERS OF THE DEEP: FROM SUBLIME TO… THE OTHER THING


Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

WONDERS OF THE DEEP: FROM SUBLIME TO… THE OTHER THING

Seahorse by Alex Konahin

It’s a statistically proven fact (and not, in any way, a ‘post-truth’ proposition) that no one has ever had a bad thing to say about seahorses. Indeed, some love them too much and consume them – see HERE for threats to seahorse populations in some areas of the world. 

Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

Sometimes they are easy to see. The header image shows an orange seahorse curling its tail round green weed on pink coral – hard to miss. Yet sometimes it may be quite difficult to see the little creatures against their chosen background.

Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

These guys are, I think, for their size among the most sublime of all underwater creatures. I use the word in the strict historical sense “of very great excellence or beauty, exalted, awe-inspiring, majestic, magnificent, glorious.” Not just to mean “nice”. 

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In contrast, there are some undersea creatures that inspire… not awe exactly, but maybe an amused respect that so wonderful and bizarre a creature can exist in our oceans, in some cases only a few feet below the surface. Here are two examples of what I mean.

Batfish (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

This is a BATFISH. It was an early shoo-in for my “WTF? (What’s that Fish?)” series, and you can read all about them and their ways HERE. Of all the creatures I have featured on this blog, this is by some distance the oddest…

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…except for its companion in oddness, the FROGFISH. This was next in the WTF? series, and the creature is, if anything, even stranger. You can read all about these critters HERE, where you will learn inter alia about their superpowers – any one of which you might like to have yourself. There are plenty of photos, and videos too.

FROGFISH SUPERPOWERS

  • Invisibility Cloak
  • Irresistible (and, to their prey, Fatal) Attraction
  • Buoyancy Control
  • Shapeshifting

Frogfish (Adam Rees / Scuba Works) 

I do not court controversy, recognising that people following this site, or maybe stumbling across it by mistake and lingering, reach their views on natural history from different directions. But these strange and fascinating species exist and thrive in their own particular and ingenious ways – it doesn’t really matter how or why they are as they are. The bats and the frogs are high in the list of the least conventional of undersea creatures, and if they are not exactly sublime in a seahorse sense, can we just agree that they are awesome?

Frogfish (Adam Rees / Scuba Works) 

Photo Credits: Adam Rees / Scuba Works; Melinda Riger; Alex Konahin (seahorse gif)

Seahorse (Bahamas) 4 ©Melinda Riger @G B Scuba Long-nosed Batfish Wiki Frogfish Hunting (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)

WATCHING NURSE SHARKS: BE PATIENT…


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WATCHING NURSE SHARKS: BE PATIENT…

I last took a look at nurse sharks nearly 3 years ago HERE. Time to revisit these creatures. Indeed, time for a close-up look. If you want to know more about this fascinating species, just click the link above.

The two strange items hanging down from the upper lip are sensory barbels
nurse-shark-melinda-riger-g-b-scuba

This side-view shows the shark’s relatively small mouth (for a shark anyway)nurse-shark-a-melinda-riger-gb-scuba

Admire the extraordinary texture of the the skin; and the tiny evil eye. Click or – better – double click on the image and you will see that the skin is in fact tessellated, made up of a mosaic of tiny squares and near-squares**nurse-shark-close-up-melinda-riger-g-b-scuba

This one is a baby nurse sharknurse-shark-baby-melinda-riger-gb-scuba

A juvenile nurse shark with a couple of grunts. Note the youngster’s paddle-like finnurse-shark-juv-melinda-riger-g-b-scuba

Head, mouth, jaws and teeth

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SO, THEY ARE SHARKS – ARE THESE GUYS DANGEROUS?

Not really, no. They aren’t looking to pick a fight; and they are not as territorially aggressive as the ‘bitey’ sharks are (or can be).  These slow-moving bottom-dwellers are generally harmless to humans. However, they can be huge—up to 4 metres —and have very strong jaws filled with thousands of tiny, serrated teeth. They will bite defensively if stepped on or bothered by divers who assume they’re docile. [As I said previously, “there are recorded instances of injuries caused to divers who have tried to pull nurse sharks by the tail. And serve them right, I say. Treat them with patience and respect!”] 

Nurse Shark ©Melinda Riger @ G B Scuba copy

**FUN FACT

M.C. ESCHER (the inspiration for Mr Hammer) was the master of tessellation in art. Click the link to explore the dedicated website. Maybe, sensationally, one day a shark will be found with skin like this… (Alert reader: “Actually, I think it most unlikely…”)

Escher fish

Credits: field photos by Melinda Riger, Grand Bahama Scuba; Wiki for the 4 mouth images & the Escher 

Nurse Shark ©Melinda Riger @ Grand Bahama Scuba