WONDERS OF THE DEEP: FROM SUBLIME TO… THE OTHER THING


Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

WONDERS OF THE DEEP: FROM SUBLIME TO… THE OTHER THING

Seahorse by Alex Konahin

It’s a statistically proven fact (and not, in any way, a ‘post-truth’ proposition) that no one has ever had a bad thing to say about seahorses. Indeed, some love them too much and consume them – see HERE for threats to seahorse populations in some areas of the world. 

Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

Sometimes they are easy to see. The header image shows an orange seahorse curling its tail round green weed on pink coral – hard to miss. Yet sometimes it may be quite difficult to see the little creatures against their chosen background.

Seahorse (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

These guys are, I think, for their size among the most sublime of all underwater creatures. I use the word in the strict historical sense “of very great excellence or beauty, exalted, awe-inspiring, majestic, magnificent, glorious.” Not just to mean “nice”. 

view

In contrast, there are some undersea creatures that inspire… not awe exactly, but maybe an amused respect that so wonderful and bizarre a creature can exist in our oceans, in some cases only a few feet below the surface. Here are two examples of what I mean.

Batfish (Adam Rees / Scuba Works)

This is a BATFISH. It was an early shoo-in for my “WTF? (What’s that Fish?)” series, and you can read all about them and their ways HERE. Of all the creatures I have featured on this blog, this is by some distance the oddest…

1237416_634181949949814_495389836_o

frogfish-anglerfisch

…except for its companion in oddness, the FROGFISH. This was next in the WTF? series, and the creature is, if anything, even stranger. You can read all about these critters HERE, where you will learn inter alia about their superpowers – any one of which you might like to have yourself. There are plenty of photos, and videos too.

FROGFISH SUPERPOWERS

  • Invisibility Cloak
  • Irresistible (and, to their prey, Fatal) Attraction
  • Buoyancy Control
  • Shapeshifting

Frogfish (Adam Rees / Scuba Works) 

I do not court controversy, recognising that people following this site, or maybe stumbling across it by mistake and lingering, reach their views on natural history from different directions. But these strange and fascinating species exist and thrive in their own particular and ingenious ways – it doesn’t really matter how or why they are as they are. The bats and the frogs are high in the list of the least conventional of undersea creatures, and if they are not exactly sublime in a seahorse sense, can we just agree that they are awesome?

Frogfish (Adam Rees / Scuba Works) 

Photo Credits: Adam Rees / Scuba Works; Melinda Riger; Alex Konahin (seahorse gif)

Seahorse (Bahamas) 4 ©Melinda Riger @G B Scuba Long-nosed Batfish Wiki Frogfish Hunting (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)

REMARKABLE REEF CREATURES TO ADMIRE


Octopus (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)

REMARKABLE REEF CREATURES TO ADMIRE

Here is a small collection of recent photographs from Adam Rees of Scuba Works. Three OCTOPUSES, an astounding FROGFISH,  a SEAHORSE, a MANTIS SHRIMP at close quarters, and a wonderful HAWKSBILL TURTLE. Clicking on a link will take you to a post with more photos and information about each creature. If these images don’t make you want to scuba then… what will?

Frogfish Hunting (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)Seahorse (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)Mantis Shrimp (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)Octopus 3 (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)Hawksbill Turtle (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)Octopus 2 (Adam Rees : Scuba Works)

All photos Adam Rees / Scuba Works, with thanks for use permission

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) (5): THE FROGFISH


Frogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

WTF? (WHAT’S THAT FISH?) (5): THE FROGFISH

This ‘WTF?’ series started with a relatively conventional species, the REMORA. It has been getting progressively more bizarre. We moved onto an omnium gatherum of WEIRDO FISHES, then the remarkable LETTUCE SEA SLUG, and most recently the BATFISH. Time to ramp up the stakes: with many thanks to scuba expert Adam Rees for use permission for his terrific photos, I present… the FROGFISH.

Frogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

The frogfish is a kind of anglerfish found in almost all tropical and subtropical oceans and seas. There are about 50 different species worldwide, covering an astonishing range of strange appearances. They generally live on the sea floor around coral or rock reefs. In size they vary from tiny to about 15 inches long – although ‘long’ is a flexible concept because they are to an extent shape-changers in height and width.Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works)

FROGFISH SUPERPOWERS YOU MAY WISH TO HAVE

  • INVISIBILITY CLOAK . Frogfish are masters of disguise and camouflage. This enables them to catch their prey with minimal effort and also to avoid predators. Their camouflage methods – broadly known as ‘aggressive mimicry’ – include
    • Ability to change colour for days or even weeks to mimic their surroundings
    • Getting covered in algae and other organic matter that matches their habitat or
    • Looking inherently like a plump rock or in some cases, plant

Fear for the life of the spider crabFrogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

  • IRRESISTIBLE ATTRACTION (just like that nice Mr Grey)
    • A sort of frontal dorsal fin called an illicium to which is attached a
    • Lure called an esca which may mimic a worm, shrimp or small fish etc and which is
    • Retractable in many species and
    • Regenerates if it gets mislaid

The ‘dollop of cream’ thing is the esca. Note the characteristic large mouthFrogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

Spot the escaFrogfish (wiki)

  • BUOYANCY CONTROL & SHAPE-SHIFTING
    • Most frogfish have a ‘gas bladder’ to control their buoyancy.
    • Some species can change shape or even inflate themselves by sucking in quantities of water in a so-called defensive ‘threat display’.

frogfish-black

Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works) Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works)

HOW DO FROGFISH REPRODUCE? 

Although not conventionally attractive creatures, frogfish clearly manage to reproduce. Little is known about the techniques in the wild, but one is probably ‘with care’, especially for a male frogfish who may not survive for long if he hangs around after fertilisation has taken place. It has been noted that females tend to select far smaller males to fertilise their huge numbers of eggs, perhaps for that very reason.

Frogfish (Adam Rees, Scuba Works)

FROGFISH FEEDING SKILLS – GOOD OR BAD?

When deploying the lure, potential prey that comes too close to that wide mouth stands no chance. A frogfish will strike in a fraction of a second. Frogfishes have voracious appetites for crustaceans, other fish, and even each other. I can do no better than borrow this vivid description of a feeding frogfish:

“When potential prey is first spotted, the frogfish follows it with its eyes. Then, when it approaches within roughly seven body-lengths, the frogfish begins to move its illicium in such a way that the esca mimics the motions of the animal it resembles. As the prey approaches, the frogfish slowly moves to prepare for its attack; sometimes this involves approaching the prey or “stalking” while sometimes it is simply adjusting its mouth angle. The catch itself is made by the sudden opening of the jaws, which enlarges the volume of the mouth cavity up to twelve-fold, pulling the prey into the mouth along with water. The attack can be as fast as 6 milliseconds. The water flows out through the gills, while the prey is swallowed and the oesophagus closed with a special muscle to keep the victim from escaping. In addition to expanding their mouths, frogfish can also expand their stomachs to swallow animals up to twice their size.

images

HOW DO FROGFISHES GET AROUND? SWIM? WALK? CRAWL?

Frogfishes do not in fact move around a great deal. Using their camo advantages, they prefer to lie on the sea floor and wait for prey to come to them. As mentioned in the quote above, they may slowly approach prey using their pectoral and pelvic fins to “walk” along the sea bottom. They can swim using their tail fin (or in some species by simple ‘jet propulsion’ by forcing water out of their gills) but rarely do so – they don’t feed on the move, and they are adapted to the sea floor environment where they food is readily available. However their “walking” ability is limited to short distances.

frogfish-anglerfisch

DO FROGFISH HAVE OTHER COLOUR SCHEMES?

Indeed they do. In stark contrast to the camo species, some frogfishes are highlighter bright. Here are two of my favourite photos by Adam that show this clearly. I’ve no idea if these are a male and female. I suspect they are different species. I think the brown one is a striated frogfish and the other is… a yellow frogfish. Some people keep these creatures in  aquaria, but apparently it is impossible to sex them, and they have to be kept on their own for everyone’s peace of mind…

Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works) Frogfish (Adam Rees Scuba Works)

FROGFISH INFOGRAPHICS

frogfishFrogfish Infographic 'Monsters of the Deep'

FROGFISH VIDEOS

These two videos, from Lester Knutsen and Daan Van Wijk respectively, show some of the characteristics I have written about above. Both are short and both are fascinating.

To read more about frogfishes and for some fabulous photos I highly recommend the website FROGFISH.CH You can reach the main page(s) but the link seem to be broken so I have not been able to contact Teresa Zubi, whose site it is. She clearly has a sense of humour and uses a neat pair of gifs which I hope she won’t mind my using…

Credits: All main photos, Adam Rees  of Scuba Works with many thanks; wiki for ‘spot the esca’, red quote & basic info; videos Lester Knutsen & Daan Van Wijk; Teresa Zubi for website & gifs; infographics, authors u/k

Frogfish Tee Shirt