MAPPING ABACO: ON THE MAP IN 1702


Map of the Bahama Islands - Samuel Thornton - c1702

MAPPING ABACO: ON THE MAP IN 1702

In the Old World, 1702 was a turbulent year politically, royally, and militarily. Treaties made were broken; new treaties were made. Queen Anne succeeded to the throne after William III died of complications after falling off his horse. Anne went on to have 17 children, any one of whom would have secured the succession, but the extraordinary and sad fact is that none survived beyond childhood. In the New World, English troops were abroad, attacking St Augustine in (then-Spanish) Florida.

Map of the Bahama Islands - Samuel Thornton - c1702

Meanwhile in the world of cartography, the development of mapping continued apace with the Dutch retaining their pre-eminence, and the French and British making important contributions. Which brings me to Samuel Thornton, hydrographer, and his mapping ways. He was the son of the more famous cartographer, John Thornton, considered the principal English chart-maker of the late c17. As his father aged, a degree of uncertainty seems to have crept in over the authorship of Thornton maps. It is clear that after John’s death in 1708, Samuel took over the business and reissued maps under his own name, sometimes with little alteration other than the name in the cartouche. However there was possibly a ‘grey area’ for a few years before, when the same practice applied. 

Map of the Bahama Islands - Samuel Thornton - c1702

Samuel Thornton’s ‘…New Chart of the Bahama Islands and the Windward Pafsage (sic)’ is thought originally to date from c1702, when presumably the enjoyably colourful Cartouche (above) in fact bore his father’s name. The map covers an extensive geographical area besides the Bahamas, with the Florida coastline revealed as remarkably unpopulated. Zeroing in on the northern Bahamas (and as is usual with historic maps), certain features stand out, not least with spelling. Andros was written Androfs (sic). The Bahama Banck (sic) is shown to extend quite a long way north of Abbaco (sic) and Grand Bahama (shown as Bahama I). And as noted in earlier posts relating to Abaco’s history (see links below), ‘Hole in the Rock’ (ie Wall) is the only mainland location marked. This was not because there was any sizeable settlement there, but because for at least a century beforehand, Abaco’s most notable topographic feature was a significant and instantly recognisable navigation marker for shipping at the southern end of the island.

Map of the Bahama Islands - Samuel Thornton - c1702

One problem with Samuel Thornton’s reissues of his father’s maps was that flaws an original map from which a reproduction was derived went uncorrected. For example if you look at the header image of the full map, there’s a dark band right down the centre of the map, which persisted in later versions. More importantly, there was probably little or no correction of errors that new expeditions in the area might have revealed. Be that as it may, the Thornton map plays a significant role in the mapping of the Bahama Islands and beyond, and marks the start of an increasing sophistication as the new century progressed.

RELATED POSTS

MAPPING ABACO Bahamas and Florida in the c17

MAPPING ABACO Bellin’s Map 1764

MAPPING ABACO A journey back to c18

A HISTORY OF HOLE-IN-THE-WALL IN MAPS

Map of the Bahama Islands - Samuel Thornton - c1702

NEW YEAR, NEW WORLD, NEW COMMS AT LAST!


Bahamas Map Stamp

NEW YEAR, NEW WORLD – NEW COMMS AT LAST!

Rolling Harbour downtime is coming to an end. Christmas is a cheery (bleary?) memory, with evidential leftovers in the kitchen and (thankfully) some overbought (accidentally, maybe?) drink in the cupboard, under the table, oh! look! there’s another bottle on the bookcase. The last of the grandchildren is with us and a bright shiny New Year is… good grief, tomorrow. In the interim, we have had a wifi blackout of 5 days and a power outage for 2 days – and this is in the UK, not Abaco as you might expeect! So, no viable internet, and indeed no electrics at all. But we have wood fires and plenty of wood; a large supply of candles; and gas to cook on. 

All of which leads up to an apology for emails undealt with, bird ID queries apparently ignored, comments unanswered and similar impolitenesses. Normal service will be resumed next week. That is my first (and easiest) New Year’s Resolution, before we come to the more testing things I’ll resolve not to do…

Bahamas Map Stamp (First Day Cover)

I thought I’d post these Bahamas stamp images (from ‘Mr Columbus’ on eBay) to celebrate (symbolically) the imminent New Year. I suspect they are somewhat contentious fact-wise. For example, I wonder if Columbus and his crew really believed they had covered such a relatively short distance before making landfall. 

For now, a very Happy New Year to all those that take the trouble to follow the musings from Rolling Harbour. There’s some great stuff lined up for 2018. Here’s an example of the Bahamas Postal Service’s excellent work in producing eye-catching wildlife stamps to end with (nb these particular birds are very rare on Abaco – the island’s third and least reported hummer).

Bahamas Hummingbird Stamp

MAPPING ABACO: BELLIN’S MAP 1764


Bellin Map 1764 - Carte des Isles Lucayes

MAPPING ABACO: BELLIN’S MAP 1764

Jacques Nicolas Bellin (1703 – 1772) was a French naval hydrographer & geographer. He was a prolific mapmaker, especially of French territories, and was noted for his meticulous technique and attention to detail. He was elected to the Royal Society; and in due course was appointed Official Hydrographer of the French King.

Bellin Map 1764 - Carte des Isles Lucayes

In 1764, Bellin’s Petit Atlas Maritime was published. I am featuring one sheet from the atlas, the “Carte des Isles Lucayes”. The whole work came as a 5-volume set of map sheets, containing a total of 580 detailed charts. As you will see here, this copperplate engraving can be found in various forms: plain black & white; hand-washed or hand-coloured; or grandly multicoloured. These variations are the consequence of the distinction of Bellin’s work, which led to repeated re-publication in the c18 and beyond. Additionally, his work was admired and copied abroad.

Bellin Map 1764 - Carte des Isles Lucayes

Bellin’s map contains plenty of information – including depth markings and advised shipping routes – though some of the topography might be considered debatable by modern standards. As you look more closely, some of the details are startling. For example, on New Providence (see above) the only place-name is simply designated ‘Ville’, as though the settlement there lacked the significance to merit a name. And look at it now… Andros is completely name-free, with not even a Ville marked – as is Grand Bahama for that matter, though a few Cays are named. Let’s turn to Abaco.
Bellin Map 1764 - Carte des Isles Lucayes
This section of the Bellin map also appears in my Abaco mapping article relating to HOLE-IN-THE-WALL. This geographical feature at the southern extremity of Abaco (now sadly blown apart by HURRICANE SANDY after millennia) was an important navigational landmark for shipping  by c17. The name, in French here, underwent a number of changes of the centuries, as you can see using the HITW link above.
Also of note is that at least Abaco was credited with a single named location – Little Harbour, the first settlement to feature on early maps, and the only one for a surprisingly long time. I imagine the position of this inlet and the safe anchorage it could provide for relatively large vessels became well-known. Like Hole-in-the-Wall, it was of seafaring significance.
A c18 mariner, looking at Bellin’s map in contemplation of a trip to the Isles Lucayes, might conclude that the seas around Abaco and Grand Bahama might be treacherous. The profusion of rocky areas and the indication of depth changes around the islands and cays suggest caution would be needed for a voyage. And as we know, throughout history ships have been wrecked in these seas – a situation somewhat improved (but not entirely eliminated) when the three ABACO LIGHTHOUSES were built.
Bellin Map 1764 - Carte des Isles Lucayes
RELATED POSTS
Credits: Library of Congress; Barry Ruderman Cat.; OS auctions inc eBay (!)

MAPPING ABACO, BAHAMAS & FLORIDA IN THE c17


MAPPING ABACO, BAHAMAS & FLORIDA IN THE c17

I once wrote a post tracking the history of Abaco in general, and Hole-in-the-Wall in particular, in historic maps spanning 4 centuries. You can read it HERE.

The post includes a map of the Bahama Islands (‘Isles Lucayes’) by the early French mapmaker Alain Manesson Mallet, published in Paris in 1683. The header shows a later hand-coloured version. The splendid original looks like this. Now that is a map (as Crocodile Dundee once said of a knife)

The recognisable shape of Abaco – I. Lucaioneque – lies weirdly on its side beneath the billowing sails of the vignette, with Grand Bahama (Bahama) between it and Floride. The confusingly named and sized I. Abacoa is Andros; I. Ciguateo is Eleuthera; and I. Curateo is Exuma. I. Guanahani was the landfall for Columbus, and was renamed by him San Salvador. New Providence may or may not be made from the two similar shapes shown west of Andros (at the time, the Lucayan name was Nema). And so on. There’s more to be said on the historic Lucayan names in the Bahamas – maybe one day I’ll get round to saying it…

For now, I want to move on to another map by Mallet that I have just come across. Published in c.1684 (sources vary), this map is of Florida (and beyond), titled rather strangely in German but otherwise in French. Here, the Isles Lucayes are very much a side-feature, reduced to the West End of Grand Bahama, and 4 unspecified small cays like the 4-dot on dice. There’s no embellishment besides the simple ‘draped’ title, the trees and mountains – no fleet of ships in full sail in the Gulf of Mexico. To be honest, though dated within a year or 2 of each, other the maps are so entirely different in style and even script that they could easily have been made by different people. In fact I had to double-check the authorship with various online sources.

Florida is named Tegesta, for the Native American tribe that lived in the region. The name still exists in the form Tequesta, in Palm Beach County Fl. You can read more about this fascinating tribe, their lives and cultural practices HERE. Just two settlements in Tegesta – St. Augustine and St. Mathieu – are shown. I’ve gone rather off-piste from my usual Bahamian territory, but this early map provides an enjoyably interesting cartographic overview of the known topography / geography of the day.

Approximate territory of the Tequesta in the 16th centuryFLMap-Tequesta-tribe2.PNG

If the earth had an uniform surface like a ping pong ball there would be nothing for a geographer to study. But it is not thusly uniform – the actual earth has numerous variations of every sort studied by geographers. Topography maps the physical surface, and geology explores the underground features. But the geography of the earth includes many other [factors] like economics, weather, climate, social distribution, trade, etc.  At the core of geography is cartography – which is the mapping of all these things. Rudolf G. Barton, BA in geography UCB (Commercial Pilot ret.)
Credits: the maps are open source – frequently passed around on the internet and impossible to locate the originator; Wiki for the diagram; Geography lesson, as shown above…

АБАKО: SOVIET RUSSIAN MILITARY MAP OF ABACO


Soviet Russian Military Map of Abaco 1979

АБАKО: SOVIET RUSSIAN MILITARY MAP OF ABACO

I had been toying with a plan to write something fishy today. Lifting the lid on the secrets of the creole wrasse, maybe. Then something arrived in my inbox overnight that changed my course entirely. I was struck  by an idea  harder than a torrent of mixed metaphors speeding towards a bullseye in the motherlode. A map! A map of Abaco!! All in Russian!!! From the Soviet Russian Military Survey!!!! Irresistible. An occasion for multiple exclamation marks.509px-hammer_and_sickle_black_large_on_transparent-svg

‘Russian Soviet Military Topographic Maps’

Map sheet G-18-1 GREAT ABACO ISLAND ed. 1979 – scale 1:500 000, map size 66 cm x 55 cm

Soviet Russian Military Map of Abaco 1979

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My blog is stuffed full of maps. They are scattered everywhere, like cartographical confetti. There’s even a page for some of them HERE. Want a map of Abaco’s HIGHEST POINT (134m, if you have the energy).  Need to see what Abaco looked like 300 years ago? Try HERE. Need a history of Hole-in-the-Wall in maps? Try THIS. And so on.
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The header map is a merely the bottom-left corner of the much larger map immediately above. As a crop of the much larger area, it’s illegible. Which is next to useless, because the best thing about this map is that it is all in Russian. And I really wanted to see how they had mapped Marsh Harbour. Treasure Cay. Man-o-War. And the rest. I looked around online and reached this one. Even with some work on the image, you can only get a blurry glimpse – just a few tempting hints of Cyrillic. But it’s impossible to locate Марш Харьор, Трежер Ки, or Ман-оф-Уор Ки…

Soviet Russian Military Map of Abaco 1979

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So, back to the interweb thing. And eventually, something usable turned up. Here, with props to Clicpic, is Abaco in the late Soviet era. Check out where you live – in Russian. Got friends on Грейт Гуапна Кй? Sadly, the northern end of Abaco and the whole southern end from Crossing Rocks down to Hole-in-the-Wall and right round to Sandy Point is absent. That area is of course the perfect place for missile silos**. Except now it’s a National Park, so that wouldn’t be possible… would it?

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I’ve split the map into 3 sections to make it as big as possible. The maps overlap to keep the proportions equal on-screen. Double click to zoom in. Hope you enjoy travelling around it…

Soviet Russian Military Map of Abaco 1979 Detail 1 Soviet Russian Military Map of Abaco 1979 Detail 2 Soviet Russian Military Map of Abaco 1979 Detail 3

** Vladdy, mate, if you or your agents have picked up on this, (1) only joking, right? and (2) you’ve  anyway got better things to worry about these days…

WHEN NEW PROVIDENCE WAS OLD: MAPPING BAHAMAS HISTORY


Map of New Providence / Nassau Bahamas (early c18)

WHEN NEW PROVIDENCE WAS OLD: MAPPING BAHAMAS HISTORY

“Exact Draught of the Island of New Providence, One of the Bahama Islands in the West Indies”

Lateral thinking is one thing; topsy-turvy thinking is in another league. The map that graces the top of this page is of New Providence and Nassau in the the early c18. By today’s exacting mapping conventions, which historically were less rigorously observed, it is upside-down, with Nassau on what we would call the south-west corner. The map is undated of the face of it, and I have found attributed dates of both 1700 and 1750. It could be anywhere in-between. At the time this map was made, New Providence was sparsely populated except for Nassau itself; and little was known about the island’s interior. Contemporary accounts describe a haven for pirates operating around the coastline. Not for nothing was Nassau protected by a battery and a fort. I’ve divided to map into sections to make it easier to take a closer look at each area. You can click each to enlarge.

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  1. TOP LEFT CORNER (the south-east of NP in actuality), with the compass pointing downwards to the north. A smattering of houses dot the ‘west’ coast. There is one significant property above Little Sound, standing in what looks like a cleared or even cultivated area. I’ll look at that in more detail below. Note the words above The Great Salt Water Sound: “Very High Pines Grow Here Aboue (sic)”, evidence that forests of tall pines familiar even today on Abaco were found on NP 300 years ago. The island is otherwise mostly marked as if the landscape was fairly open.

new-providence-c18-map-part-1

2. TOP RIGHT CORNER (south-west & west), with the confident title in a cartouche proclaiming exactness. This was not uncommon in historic map-making – the cartographical equivalent of today’s boastful product slogans – ‘simply the best’ and so on**. The caption next to the Great Sound, This Part of the Country is little Known, suggests an unexplored and perhaps hostile environment – possibly one of marshes and bogs. This sector of the island appears to have been uninhabited, or at least to having no population centres worth recording.

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3. BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER (north-west). At last there is more evidence habitation, with a string of dwellings along the coastline. The 2 cays shown have names, West End and ‘Pellican’. And it looks as though the two ships have set out from port. On the left side of the bay above them, a church can be seen. I’m not sure what the double row of crosses indicates (maybe someone can help here), but I wondered if they might indicate the area close to the shoreline that might be safe – or at least safer – from pirate attack. The leading ship – as the detailed crop shows clearly – is a warship. No harm in romantically speculating that it is escorting a trading vessel…

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4. BOTTOM MIDDLE SECTION As we move towards the main – indeed only – town on the island, it is clear that the northern coast was the most desirable place to live. The scattering of houses along the coast continues; and the captions for the ponds show a possible reason why: fresh water, on an island where other areas of water are actually marked as ‘salt’ or which might have been unpleasantly brackish. And now we can see more of the posh establishment I referred to above. Not only did it lie in open (or perhaps cultivated) country, but it was plainly of some importance. It is notably larger that other buildings depicted, for a start; and it has its own very long track that forks off the coastal track.

new-providence-c18-map-part-10

5. BOTTOM LEFT CORNER: NASSAU We have reached the big city, the centre of the population, and the port – with the harbour entrance handily marked. It bore the same name then as now; though the other names marked (as far as I can make out) have mostly if not all changed over 3 centuries. The Baha Mar development and its attendant travails seem light years away from this map. The double line of crosses ends here (bottom right at the first cay). If they marked a safe zone for vessels passing back and forth into Nassau harbour, they did not need to extend further because of the town fortifications (see detailed crop). There is a fort right on the shore; and at the far end of the harbour sound is a battery at Drewitt’s Point. The town is watched over by a substantial building – presumably a Governor’s residence – that is surrounded by a stockade . In the early c18 Nassau put on a show of strength to deter invaders and pirates.

new-providence-c18-map-part-2new-providence-c18-map-part-14

DO WE KNOW THE EXACT DRAUGHT’S EXACT DATE?

The map itself is undated. The Library of Congress, whose map I have chopped up for this post, simply dates it as 17– and notes: 

Manuscript, pen-and-ink and watercolor; Has watermark; Oriented with north to the bottom; Relief shown pictorially and by shading; Depths shown by soundings.

The excellent David Rumsey Historical Map Collection chooses the year 1750, the maker unknown. Another source puts the date at 1700.

Whichever, a clue to establish the map in the first half of the c18 is that the publisher is believed to be ‘William Innys [et al.]’, London. Innys and his brother John (the ‘et al’ presumably) were active at that time. In 1726, for example, they published an edition of Newton’s  Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (first published in 1687), indicating that they must already have been well-established.

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WHAT ABOUT THE PIRATES?

The “Deposition of  Capt. Matthew Musson” made on  5 Jul 1717 in London, contains some excellent contemporary  pirate-based material. The middle passage in particular gives an indication how well organised and extremely well-armed the pirates were. And it is clear that piracy was actually driving inhabitants away from New Providence.

  • “On March last he was cast away on the Bahamas. At Harbour Island he found about 30 families, with severall pirates, which frequently are comeing and goeing to purchase provissons for the piratts vessells at Providence. There were there two ships of 90 tons which sold provissons to the said pirates, the sailors of which said they belong’d to Boston”.
  • “At Habakoe one of the Bahamas he found Capt. Thomas Walker and others who had left Providence by reason of the rudeness of the pirates and settled there. They advis’d him that five pirates made ye harbour of Providence their place of rendevous vizt. [Benjamin] Horngold, a sloop with 10 guns and about 80 men; [Henry] Jennings, a sloop with 10 guns and 100 men; [Josiah(s)] Burgiss, a sloop with 8 guns and about 80 men; [Henry?] White, in a small vessell with 30 men and small armes; [Edward] Thatch, a sloop 6 gunns and about 70 men. All took and destroyd ships of all nations except Jennings who took no English; they had taken a Spanish ship of 32 gunns, which they kept in the harbour for a guardship”.
  • “Ye greatest part of the inhabitants of Providence are. already gone into other adjacent islands to secure themselves from ye pirates, who frequently plunder them. Most of the ships and vessells taken by them they burn and destroy when brought into the harbour and oblidge the menn to take on with them. The inhabitants of those Isles are in a miserable condition at present, but were in great hopes that H.M. would be graciously pleas’d to take such measures, which would speedily enable them to return to Providence their former settlement, there are severall more pirates than he can now give an accot. of that are both to windward and to leward of Providence that may ere this be expected to rendevous there he being apprehensive that unless the Governmt. fortify this place the pirates will to protect themselves”. Signed, Mathew Musson. Endorsed, Read 5th July, 1717. 1½ pp. [C.O. 5, 1265. No. 73.]

new-providence-c18-map-part-11

CAN I BUY THIS MAP FOR MY WALL?

You certainly can. Well, not an original obviously. But you can find prints of it on eBay and elsewhere – just google the map title. You can get a modern copy for around $20 + shipping

** I have an enjoyable example of this tendency on a William Guthrie map of Europe dated c1800. A map from “the beft authorities” could surely have no serious rival!img_4771

Credits: Library of Congress Online Catalog (Geography and Map Division); David Rumsey Historical Map Collection; Baylus C Brooks, Professional Research & Maritime Historian, Author, & Conservator / “America and West Indies: July 1717, 1-15,” in Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies: Volume 29, 1716-1717, ed. Cecil Headlam (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1930), 336-344; Bonhams (Auctioneers)

STARK’S “HISTORY OF & GUIDE TO THE BAHAMAS”


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STARK’S “HISTORY OF & GUIDE TO THE BAHAMAS”

James H. Stark appears to have been, for his time, a veritable Rough Guide for the Caribbean. In 1891 he produced an entrancing tome, the commendably grammatically correctly-titled “Stark’s History of and Guide to the Bahama Islands Containing a Description of Everything on or About the Bahama Islands of Which the Visitor or Resident May Desire Information, Including Their History, Inhabitants, Climate, Agriculture, Geology, Government and Resources”. More of his other magna opera below.

Stark's History of & Guide to the Bahamas     Stark's History of & Guide to the Bahamas

 The jaunty and classic late c19 cover depicts the landing of Columbus, lest the unwary reader should be so ill-informed as the be unaware of the location of the great explorer’s landfall. And gives the date of the event, for the sake of completeness. The title page is most informative of the contents, and manages to namecheck the author three times (or thrice, as he might have put it). The illustrations and in particular the maps are wonderful, and call for a small gallery for your enjoyment. The “Coast Chart” is compiled from “the latest… surveys.” The map of Nassau is most interesting to compare with a map of 125 years later. And the engraved map is set at an unusual angle to say the least. [I’ve tried to clip the Abaco part to check the place names, but I can’t yet get a clear enough image to read].

Stark's History of & Guide to the Bahamas - Bahamas Map

Stark's History of & Guide to the Bahamas - Nassau map

Stark's History of & Guide to the Bahamas - Bahama Islands Map

An historic map from 100 years earlier: note the place names, eg ‘Alabaster’ (Eleuthera)129

The ‘History of & Guide to’ has detailed sections on all the islands. I have lifted the relevant pages – only a few – concerning Abaco. See what a difference 125 years makes…

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I enjoyed reading the ‘opinions of the press’. How unlike our own dear Amazon reviews…Stark's History of & Guide to the Bahamas    Stark's History of & Guide to the Bahamas

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RAISING A CONTROVERSY…

This is a topic I have touched on before. It concerns the authentic location of the ‘Glass Window’ of Winslow Homer’s famous painting. Is it Eleuthera (as claimed) or Abaco (as contended). The argument is lodged with the Brooklyn Museum, custodian of the Homer painting. In Stark’s book of 1891 is a fine photograph of a – or the? – ‘glass window’, assigned to Eleuthera. Below is an earlier engraving entitled ‘On Abaco Island’. It is the work of Homer, named by him, and seemingly a preliminary study for the painting. The same view? Or different? The jury is still listening to the arguments… 

136aHole-in-the-Wall Picture

Winslow Homer G W Original Brooklyn

Other books by James H. Stark that you may enjoy:

Stark’s History and Guide to Barbados and the Caribee Islands, Containing a Description of Everything on or About These Islands of Which the Visitor or Resident May Desire Information – Including Their History, Inhabitants, Climate, Agriculture, Geology (1893)

A ditto for Trinidad.

A ditto for ‘Boston and its Suburbs’

A ditto to the County of Ohio

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HOLE-IN-THE-WALL for more about Hole-in-the-Wall, Abaco and Winslow Homer

Credits: my primary source is the University of Florida Digital Collection, to which thanks. However there are plenty of mainstream online sites that offer this book to view; and you can download it or even get your own POD (‘print on demand’).